This paper covers two phases of the history of science, technology and institutional co-operation in Africa - pre-colonial and colonial. It is structured into three sections. Section one looks at pre-colonial science and technology (S&T) and points out that most discussions on the socioeconomic analysis of S&T in Africa often neglect the pre-colonial phase, even though indigenous knowledge is important. Section two deals with the colonial phase in which the S&T activities of the British, French and other colonial powers are discussed. The third section looks at the establishment of inter-territorial co-operation in S&T activities during the colonial era and the eventual breakdown of effective S&T cooperation among the newly independent countries in Africa.