The articles in this special issue illustrate four of the major questions currently being addressed in personality development research: What childhood traits are the antecedents of adult personality? How are children's personalities manifest in particular contexts? Do childhood personality traits predict the development of psychopathology? Are there distinctive personality types among children and adolescents? The articles not only yield new answers to these questions but also point to the need to understand more about the processes through which personality shapes the course of youths' lives. An important focus for future work in this area will be the exploration of how positive life outcomes can be achieved by youths with widely varied personalities.