A new species of sea anemone, Anthopleura buddemeieri Fautin, is described from Fiji and Papua New Guinea. Occurring high in the intertidal zone, a typical individual has a column rich brown in color and marked with longitudinal rows of red spots. Occurring in the same habitat, at least in Papua New Guinea, is a sea anemone known in the tropical Indo-Pacific from Aden to Hawai' i, the valid name of which is Gyractis sesere. Some records of Anthopleura asiatica may refer to A. buddemeieri but some clearly do not; because the name appears to have been applied to more than one species, the original description lacks critical information, and no type material exists, the name Anthopleura asiatica is considered a nomen dubium.