A recent survey of forest tree nurseries in the eastern US indicated that hardwood tree improvement is not extensively practiced at an operational level, with only 6.8% of hardwood seedlings produced from improved materials (compared to 36% for conifer seedlings at those nurseries that produce both). Fine hardwoods represent less than 20% of improved hardwood seedling production. Most respondents indicated that the use of genetically improved materials would benefit forestry in their region; however, less than 40% have germplasm of hardwood species in improvement programs. Because most respondents stated their intention to use more genetically improved hardwood material in seedling production over the next 10 y, availability of improved materials will likely limit future use. More integration of research involving genetic improvement into operational nursery production will help sustain the future value and supply of our hardwood forest resource.