In Fiji, one of the underlying causes of historical and current losses of biodiversity has been lack of recognition of the value of many biological resources. The Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) project provides an opportunity for integration of social and economic valuation of biodiversity. This is critical for any decision relating to management and conservation of biodiversity resources. Socioeconomic valuation of biodiversity can assist communities and policy makers to better understand the net benefits of managing and conserving biodiversity. This paper presents a framework that can be applied for valuing the socioeconomic attributes of biodiversity in the PABITRA focal sites. This framework has two components. First is the quantitative method of valuation. For this, environmental economics can be applied, in particular the use of nonmarket valuation methods. Second is the qualitative method. This is based on application of participatory economic valuation methods. This second method of eliciting economic values incorporates institutional, social, and cultural activities and equity issues at the village or community levels.