Anaphora and cataphora — endophoric or intra-textual pointing by markers that refer retrospectively to an item previously mentioned in the text (anaphora) or prospectively to an item soon to come (cataphora); the umbrella term anaphora covers textual pointing in either direction. Anaphora is sometimes called "grammatical anaphora" to distinguish it from rhetorical anaphora: the repetition of a word or phrase for rhetorical effect.
Auto-referential or self-reflexive deixis — reference to the discourse, or the enunciation, itself, or to the activities of its enunciator ("I") or enunciatee ("you"); thus it would include first- and second-person deixis in everyday speech. This form of deixis points, for performance poetry, to the poem that is in the process of becoming part of the realia. When this happens, we have a combination of deixis ad oculos, intra-textual pointing, and a kind of fictional deixis. See Introduction, p. 264.
Communication — the intentional construction of meaning in two modalities, linguistic and extra-linguistic; it involves all participants or interlocutors, who, by their inferential activities, activate a cognitive comprehension of signs and signals (see Bonifazi, this volume).
Deictics — the forms that express deixis: their reference is determined by aspects of the speech situation. Deictics may be:
Proximal — first-person deixis that refers to the here/now of the speaking subject (Sp).
Medial — second-person deixis, where "you," as a co-participant in a conversation with "I," is in the vicinity of the speaker here/now and is the specific addressee (Ad).
Medial deixis may also be directed to the self as a second-person addressee.
Distal — third-person deixis, where "he, she, they" are non-participants in the conversation between an "I" and a "you"; moreover, their localization is often not specified. [End Page 445]
Deictic shift — the dislocation from one origo (real or imagined) to another.
Deictic simultaneity — "the principle that in the canonical situation-of-utterance the temporal zero-point, to, is identical for both speaker and addressee" (Lyons 1977.685). In performance poetry, where encoding and decoding times are often distinct, the poet may collapse the former (CT, coding time) into the latter (RT, reception time) and call upon his auditors to hold two origos in mind simultaneously, or perhaps sequentially.
Deixis — the "pointing out" and "pointing at" function of language, which operates within the two dimensions that frame human cognition: time and space, and thus includes time and place deixis along with personal deixis. Three fundamental types of deixis are:
Deixis ad oculos, or ocular deixis: where the system of deictics points (exophorically, extra-linguistically) to what is ad oculos or ad aures, before the eyes or ears of the listener/cognizer/addressee.
Deixis am Phantasma, imagination-oriented deixis, or fictional deixis: where the system of deictics creates a mental image of a here and now by the very act of pretending to point.
Textual Deixis: see anaphora, a pointing "up" (ana-) or backwards and "down" (cata-) or forward within the text.
Directional deixis — for verbs, prepositional phrases, and prepositions as prefixes:
Allative: the subject of the verb moves centrifugally from the origo to a target or goal (Mohammed to the Mountain).
Ablative — a target moves centripetally from a distal source toward the origo (Mountain to Mohammed).
Static locative: both the subject of the verb and the target remain in place, but the subject focalizes the target and orients itself toward the target (Mohammed sees the Mountain).
Discourse deixis — self-reflexive pointing to the enunciation; see auto-referential deixis.
Dynamic deixis — deixis that imaginatively relocates an ad, for example, through deictic shifts and directional verbs, vs. Static deixis, which merely points ad oculos or ad aures.
Enargeia — vividness; the power of language to create a vivid presence intimately connected to the emotions of the interpreter/perceiver (Bakker 1997c.7); an ancient rhetorical term. [End Page 446]
Enunciation (Fr. énonciation) — the uttering, the process of saying (a dynamic concept) vs. Fr. énoncé, what is uttered (a static concept).
Focus — salience, prominence: what is cognitively graspable and has high topicality.
Indexicality — "essentially an affair of the here and now, its office being to bring the thought [of the interpreter] to a particular experience . . ." (Peirce 1931-58.56). The relation between the...