The role of homework needs to be considered within the context of the broader developmental needs of children. This article focuses on how children spend their time after school and how homework, as well as other activities, can contribute to school success. Children differ in their after-school experiences, from "latchkey" children who lack supervision and structure, to the overextended child engaged in multiple extracurricular activities with little time for unstructured play. The authors summarize research on the impact of after-school activities—including homework programs—on school performance and make recommendations with regard to best practices for children who differ in their resources, abilities, and interests. Balancing homework with other aspects of the child's home life to promote positive developmental outcomes is recommended.