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Early Quakerism in the Netherlands: Its Wider Context
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Geoffrey F. Nuttall  

Geoffrey F. Nuttall, Lecturer in Church History, New College, University of London, was President of the Friends' Historical Society (England) in 1953. He is the author of The Holy Spirit in Puritan Faith and Experience.


1. E. Troeltsch, The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches, trans. O. Wyon (London, 1931), II, 975.

2. See British Friend, N.S., XVII (1908), 244f. (as Hylhema).

3. Cf. his Spiritual Reformers, (London, 1914), p. 104, n.1.

4. Cf. his Willem Sewel (Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1933), pp. 179 f.; The Rise of Quakerism in Amsterdam (Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1938), p. 214, n. 444, and p. 260, n. 606 (as Hylkena).

5. J. C. van Slee, De Rijnsburger Collegianten (Haarlem, 1895), pp. 177 f., 395 f., suggests influence from the English Separatist Church at Leiden which had John Robinson as pastor.

6. For these dates, cf. my Holy Spirit in Puritan Faith & Experience, (Oxford, 1946) p. 109, with n.1.

7. For Labadie's influence in the Netherlands, cf. W. Goeters, Die Vorbereitung des Pietismus in der Reformierten Kirche der Niederlande, bis zur Labadistischen Krisis 1670 (Leipzig, 1911).

8. Cf. A. R. Macewen, Antoinette Bourignon, Quietist (London, 1910), esp. ch. iii for her four years in the Netherlands.

9. This is one of many pieces used or listed by Hylkema which is not included in Joseph Smith's bibliographical volumes.

10. On the similar trend in England, cf. my Holy Spirit, pp. 13 f.

11. Cf. John Milton, Areopagitica (Everyman edn., p. 27): "a man may be a heretic in the truth."

12. Both these attitudes to worship at "the public" (cf. "de openbare kerken" on the Dutch reformers' lips) are to be found among the English Independents.

13. Cf. George Fox, Journal (Cambridge, 1911), ed. N. Penney, II, 129.

14. This "converse," which is not always observed, may help to explain the great bitterness shown to magistrates by some early Friends, e.g. Thomas Aldam, for whom cf. my Studies in Christian Enthusiasm (Wallingford, Pennsylvania, 1948), ch. 2.

15. Cf., however, the petitions sent up to Parliament from the counties, often at the instigation of the ministers, and also the attacks made by John Owen and others on the Socinian, John Bidle, at precisely this time.

16. In England also, however, Friends were regarded as unsound on the Trinity: cf. my note in Journal of the Friends' Historical Society, XLII (1950), 75f.

17. S. Crisp, Uytroepinge, I (1670), 22 f.

18. Cf. John Owen, A Defence of Mr. John Cotton (Oxford, 1658), pp. 98 f.: "And for that of Doctor; it was conferred on me by the University in my absence, and against my consent . . . nor doth anything but gratitude, and respect unto them make me once own it."

19. For his later relapse into papistry and dissoluteness, cf. W. C. Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism (London, 1912), p. 408; W. I. Hull, Benjamin Furly (Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1941), pp. 193 ff.

20. Cf. the collections in England in 1655 for the persecuted Christians of the Savoy, to which Friends subscribed: cf. Penney's note in his edition of Fox's Journal, I, 458.

21. Cf. the letters from Thomas Holme and Joseph Nicholson in my Early Quaker Letters, nos. 89, 264, 520, 536.

22. Cf. the reference to William Penn's (and other Friends') tears in meeting for worship in my Studies in Christian Enthusiasm, p. 60.

23. Cf. Philip Doddridge, Works, ed. E. Williams and E. Parsons (1802-5), V, 461: "if your tears will fall, do not restrain them; tho' they should never be forced."

24. This is part of the significance of the name "Independents" in the English scene.

25. That "the light" was nothing more than "conscience" or "reason" was a constant charge of the Puritans against early Friends.

26. Hylkema (I, 94, n. 96) provides a lengthy note on its authorship, which should be read with the discussion provided by Joseph Smith, s. v. Ames, and by W. I. Hull, The Rise of Quakerism in Amsterdam, p. 214, n. 444.

27. On the phrase "a white paper book," as used by Richard Farnworth, see my Early Quaker Letters, no. 35, with my note.

28. Cf. the...

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