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Individuation in Scholasticism: The Later Middle Ages and the Counter-Reformation, 1150- 1650 (review)
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149 JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 34: ~ JANUARY 1996 theology and intellectual history. One should value the information it provides and the methodological lessons it has to teach but not rely too heavily on its presentation of philosophical issues and arguments. BONNIE KENT Columbia University Jorge J. E. Gracia, editor. Individuation in Scholasticism: The Later Middle Ages and the Counter-Reformation, r r5o-x65o. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. Pp. xiv + 619. Paper, $22.95. This impressive volume focussing upon the problem of individuation in scholastic phi- losophy from the beginning of the thirteenth century up to the middle of the seven- teenth presents eighteen essays on individual medieval and Counter-Reformation think- ers written by some of the finest scholars in those periods. Four introductory chapters set forth the problem of individuation for the periods in question, explore the legacy of the early Middle Ages, and present the Islamic and the Jewish backgrounds from which the question emerged for Christian scholasticism. ]orge Gracia, the editor of this volume and author of Introduction to the Problem oflndwiduation m the Early MiddleAges (2d ed., Munich, 1988), contributed the first two of these introduc- tory essays, while Allan B~ick and Tamar Rudavsky are the authors of the third and fourth essays. Of the essays on particular philosophers, Jeremiah Hackett did those on Albert the Great and Roger Bacon. Peter King wrote the essays on Bonaventure and Jean Buridan. John Wippel has contributed two essays, one on Godfrey of Fontaines, Peter of Auvergne, and John Baconthorpe, the other on James of Viterbo. Mark Henninger has three essays, one on Hervaeus Natalis and Richard of Mediavilla and two others on Durand of Saint Pour~ain and Henry of Harclay. Gracia himself wrote the essay on Francis Smirez and with John Kronen contributed the essay on John of St. Thomas. Single essays were contributed by Joseph Owens on Thomas Aquinas, by Stephen Brown on Henry of Ghent, by Allan Wolter on John Duns Scotus, by Ivan Boh on Walter Burley, by Armand Maurer on William of Ockham, by Linda Peterson on Cajetan and Giles of Rome, and by Mauricio Beuchot on Chrysostom Javellus and Francis Sylvester Ferrara. [gnazio Angelelli's essay on the Scholastic background to modern philosophy, especially to the philosophy of Leibniz, rounds out the whole series of essays which Gracia ties together in his Epilogue. The mass of details and the diverse perspectives in the essays on individuation in the various philosophers covered in the period are a bit overwhelming. The volume will be used, I suspect, more as a reference book than as something to be read from cover to cover. The list of philosophers treated in the essays certainly covers the major figures and a good many of those of lesser stature. Among the latter one might wonder why this one was included and that one omitted, e.g., why Grosseteste and not William of Auvergne? Or why are Dietrich of Freiburg, Eckhart, and Cusanus not included? In any case the selection of philosophers represented is certainly reasonable and ade- quate. There is much that can be learned from the essays, at least by someone of my BOOK REVIEWS 143 level of ignorance. I was, for example, surprised to learn that haecceitas is a compara- tively rare term in Scotus (29o-90 and that for Aquinas the basic cause of individuality is existence (x 88) rather than signate matter. In his Introduction and Epilogue Gracia nicely counterbalances the tendency to- ward fragmentation stemming from the disparate accounts of individuality in the various thinkers represented in the volume. He does this, first, by highlighting for the reader the basic issues surrounding the problem of individuality, such as the concep- tion of individuality, the extension of the term 'individual', the ontological status of individuality, the principle of individuation, the discernibility of individuals, and lin- guistic reference to individuals. Secondly, he sums up the achievement of the thinkers of this period with regard to individuation. His speculation on why the question of individuality and individuation received the emphasis it did in scholastic thought, namely, because Christianity placed an emphasis upon the individual in a way that Greek thought...

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