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'The Cream,' The 'Clear,' BALCO and Baseball: An Analysis of MLB Players Image

From: Journal of Sports Media
Volume 3, Number 2, Fall 2008
pp. 1-24 | 10.1353/jsm.0.0020



In 2003, the FBI raided BALCO laboratory. The client list of the "nutritional supplement lab" included Major League Baseball players Barry Bonds and Jason Giambi. They were accused of using performance-enhancing drugs manufactured by BALCO. A content analysis examined newspaper coverage for three years. Results revealed articles had a negative tone toward the baseball industry, and sources were depicted as knowledgeable but lacking character. The players repaired their image by shifting the blame, evading responsibility, and apologizing.

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