accepted April 22, 2002.
1. Fronstin P. Sources of health insurance and characteristics
of the uninsured: Analysis of the March 1999 Current Population
Survey. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute,
2. Scott HD, Bell J, Geller S, et al. Physicians helping the
underserved: The Reach Out program. JAMA 2000 Jan 5;283(1):99-104.
3. Drazen JM, Bush GW, Gore A. The Republican and Democratic
candidates speak on health care. N Engl J Med 2000 Oct,
4. DeMarco PV, Nadkarni M. The Charlottesville Free Clinic:
Residents breaking barriers to care. JAMA 1993 May
5. Smego RA Jr, Costante J. An academic health
center-community partnership: The Morgantown Health Right free
clinic. Acad Med 1996 Jun;71(6):613-21. [CrossRef
6. Yap OW, Thornton DJ. The Arbor Free Clinic at Stanford: A
multidisciplinary effort. JAMA 1995 Feb 1;273(5):431.
7. Carter KF, Green RD, Dufour L. Health needs of homeless
clients accessing nursing care at a free clinic. J Community Health
8. Morris GS. Memphis's medical Graceland: Traditional health
care neglects the working poor; a church-based clinic steps in. Pol
Rev 1998 May-June;(89):45-48.
9. Bibeau DL, Howell KA, Rife JC, et al. The role of a
community coalition in the development of health services for the
poor and uninsured. Int J Health Serv 1996;26(1):93-110.
10. Fordham H. Burton Free Clinic. A point of light for
Flint's indigent population. Mich Med 1993 Oct;92(10):51-52.
11. Stein JA, Gelberg L. Comparability and representativeness
of clinical homeless, community homeless, and domiciled clinic
samples: Physical and mental health, substance use, and health
services utilization. Health Psychol 1997 Mar;16(2):155-62.
12. Schappert SM. Ambulatory care visits of physician offices,
hospital outpatient departments, and emergency departments: United
States, 1995. Vital Health Stat  1997 Jun;(129):1-38.
13. Ayanian JZ, Weissman JS, Schneider EC, et al. Unmet health
needs of uninsured adults in the United States. JAMA, 2000 Oct
14. Weissman JS, Gatsonis C, Epstein AM. Rates of avoidable
hospitalization by insurance status in Massachusetts and Maryland.
JAMA 1992 Nov 4;268(17):2388-94. [CrossRef
15. Franks P, Clancy CM, Gold MR. Health insurance and
mortality: Evidence from a national cohort. JAMA 1993 Aug
16. Hadley J, Steinberg EP, Feder J. Comparison of uninsured
and privately insured hospital patients: Condition on admission,
resource use, and outcome. JAMA 1991 Jan 16;265(3):374-79.
17. Ayanian JZ, Kohler BA, Abe T, et al. The relation between
health insurance coverage and clinical outcomes among women with
breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1993 Jul 29;329(5):326-31.
18. Roetzheim RG, Pal N, Tennant C, et al. Effects of health
insurance and race on early detection of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst
1999 Aug 18;91(16):1409-15. [CrossRef
19. Schriver M. No health insurance? It's enough to make you
sick. Scientific research linking the lack of health coverage to
poor health. ACP-ASIM report October 1999. Retrieved from
20. Does health insurance make a difference? OTA background
paper. Washington, DC: Congress of the United States, Office of
Technology Assessment, 1992.
21. Nadkarni MN, Cruise M, Philbrick JT. Virginia's free
clinics: Valuable asset for uninsured care. J Gen Intern Med, 2001
Apr;16 Suppl 1:210.