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Anti-Franciscanism in the Early Reformation: The Nature and Sources of Criticism

From: Franciscan Studies
Volume 55, 1998
pp. 53-81 | 10.1353/frc.1998.0047

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Footnotes

1. Eberlin, "Wider die falschen Geistlichen, genannt die Barfüsser und Franziskaner," in Ludwig Enders, ed. Johann Eberlin von Guenzburg, Saemtliche Schriften, vol. 3, Flugschriften aus der Reformationszeit, vol. 18 (Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1902) 65: "Ist der stiffter so nerrysch geseyn, das er maynet, dysse regul were das Evangelion, und ist also betrogen worden, hat auch also andere betrogen, so ist er ein grosser schedlicher narr gesein, . . . Hat er aber gewisst, das disse regel nit ist das Evangelion, und dennocht den betrug in die welt gefuert, so ist er ain ertzbuob, . . ." On the dating of this work see pp. 70 and 88. Born sometime around 1465, Eberlin likely did not enter the Franciscan Order until 1500. Before his move to Wittenberg, he was committed to a humanist program of ecclesiastical reform, to which he may have been introduced by Paul Scriptoris in Tübingen and Conrad Pellican in Basel. However, he first openly declared himself for Luther's cause while a member of the Observant priory in Ulm. Eberlin is by far the most intensively studied of the former Franciscans under consideration here. For detailed bibliographies of the literature on him, see Christian Peters, Johann Eberlin von Günzburg ca. 1465-1533. Fanziskaner Reformer, Humanist und konservativer Reformator (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 1994) and my Antifraternalism and Anticlericalism in the German Reformation: Johann Eberlin von Günzburg and the Attack on the Friars (Leicester: Scolar Press, forthcoming 1996).

2. "Ein Sendbriff Johannis Schwan. Darinne er anzeigt ausz der Bibel und Schryfft waru-b er Barfusser orden des er etwan ym kloster zuo Bassell gewest verlassen." Hans-Joachim Köhler, et al., Early Modern Pamphlets: Sixteenth-Century German and Latin, 1501-1530 (Zug, Switzerland: Interdocumentation Company, 1980 ff.), F 1186, #2980, Biii(c). Johann Schwan from Marburg had been a member of the Observant cloister in Basel. In 1522, he left the city and the Order for Wittenberg and Luther's camp. In late 1523, he moved to Strasbourg where he was active as a printer until his death in 1526.

3. Roy L. Winters, Francis Lambert of Avignon (1487-1530): A Study in Reformation Origins (Philadelphia: The United Lutheran Publishing House, 1938): 45; Lambert, "Rationes, propter quas Minoritarum conversationem habitumque reiecit" Köhler, et al., F 779, #1959. Edmund Kurten, Franz Lambert von Avignon und Nikolaus Herborn in ihrer Stellung zum Ordensgedanken und zum Franziskanertum im Besonderen (Münster: Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1950): 61-62; Lambert, "Ein Evangelische beschreibung über der Barfuosser Regel" Köhler, et al., F 378, #1050. Lambert had been a member of the Franciscan priory in Avignon. In 1522, he undertook a preaching tour of Switzerland, during which he clashed with Zwingli in Zurich and then found a more hospitable welcome in Basel. At the urging of Conrad Pellican, he went to Wittenberg, possibly accompanied by Schwan. He left Wittenberg in early 1524 and later played a prominent role in the Reformation in Hesse.

4. D. Martin Luthers Werke (Weimar, 1883- ) (Cited hereafter as WA) 11: 282. Briesmann, "Ad Gasparis Schatzgeyri plicas responsio pro Lutherano libello de Missis et Votis Monasticis" Köhler, et al., F 374, #1042. Briesmann came to Wittenberg from the Franciscan cloister in Cottbus. He became a follower of Luther at the time of the Leipzig Disputation in 1519.

5. Eberlin, "Die andere getreue Vermahnung an den Rath von Ulm" Enders 3:3 and 40.

6. Enders 3:xx; Spelt, "Ain ware Declaration oder Erklaerung der Profession / Gelübten un-leben / So die gemalten / Falschen / Gaystlichenn / wider alle Ewangelische freyhayt Und Christliche lyeb / thuon /" Köhler, et al., F 47, #131. Unfortunately, Spelt's biography remains in the dark. He apparently wrote two further pamphlets in the service of the Reformation, see Peters, 158-59.

7. Schwan, "Ein kurtzer begriff des Erschrockliche- stands der munch / . . ." Köhler, et al., F 208, #593.

8. Kettenbach, "Eine Predigt auf den achten Sonntag nach dem Pfingsttag," in Otto Clemen, ed., Die Schriften Heinrichs von Kettenbach. Flugschriften aus den ersten Jahren der Reformation, vol. 2, book 1 (Halle: Rudolf Haupt Verlag, 1907): 214-24. Although not printed until 1525, the contents of this sermon suggest that it was written to supplement the other attacks on...



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