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Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln as War Presidents: Nothing Succeeds Like Success

From: Civil War History
Volume 27, Number 1, March 1981
pp. 49-63 | 10.1353/cwh.1981.0055

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Ludwell H. Johnson  

Ludwell H. Johnson is professor of history at the College of William and Mary.

Footnotes

1. Allen Tate, Jefferson Davis, His Rise and Fall (New York, 1929), p. 126.

2. Rembert W. Patrick, Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet (Baton Rouge, 1944), p. 45 and passim.

3. Raimondo Luraghi, The Rise and Fall of the Plantation South (New York and London, 1978), p. 151.

4. David Potter, Division and the Stresses of Reunion, 1845-1876 (Glenview, Ill., 1973), p. 123.

5. George M. Fredrickson, ed., A Nation Divided: Problems and Issues of the Civil War and Reconstruction (Minneapolis, 1975), pp. 63-64. More recently Paul D. Escott, in his After Secession: Jefferson Davis and the Failure of Confederate Nationalism (Baton Rouge, 1977) claimed that Davis was largely responsible for the failure "to build a spirit of Confederate nationalism," (p. ix), and thus was responsible for the collapse of morale and the will to fight.

6. James D. Richardson, ed., The Messages and Papers of Jefferson Davis and the Confederacy, Including Diplomatic Correspondence, 1861-1865 [Introduction by Allan Nevins] (New York, 1966), 1: xxii.

7. Potter, op. cit., p. 123.

8. James Ford Rhodes, History of the Civil War, 1861-1865 (New York, 1917), p. 396.

9. Edward Younger, ed., Inside the Confederate Government: The Diary of Robert Garlick Hill Kean, Head of the Bureau of War (New York, 1957), p. 30; Patrick, op. cit., pp. 126-31.

10. James G. Randall and David Donald, The Civil War and Reconstruction (Lexington, Mass., 1969), pp. 270-71.

11. Patrick, op. cit., p. 43.

12. John H. Reagan, Memoirs, with Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War (New York and Washington, 1960), p. 162.

13. Ibid., p. 252.

14. For illustrative citations, see T. Harry Williams, Lincoln and the Radicals (Madison and Milwaukee, 1965), pp. 93-94, 110-12, 115-16, and passim; Benjamin P. Thomas and Harold M. Hyman, Stanton, The Life and Times of Lincoln's Secretary of War (New York, 1962), pp. 259-60; Salmon P. Chase Papers, Library of Congress, 1863-64, passim; Erwin S. Bradley, Simon Cameron, Lincoln's Secretary of War (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 418, 422. For Weed's trading activities, see L. H. Johnson, "Northern Profit and Profiteers: The Cotton Rings of 1864-1865," Civil War History, 12 (1966): 102-3, 105-9.

15. Fredrickson, op. cit., p. 63.

16. Tate, op. cit., p. 149.

17. For Johnston and Davis, consult, inter alia, Joseph E. Johnston, Narrative of Military Operations . . . (New York, 1874); Jefferson Davis, Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, (2 vols., New York, 1881); Douglas S. Freeman, Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command, (3 vols., New York, 1942-44); Archer Jones, Confederate Strategy from Shiloh to Vicksburg (Baton Rouge, 1961); Alfred P. James, "General Joseph Eggleston Johnston, Storm Center of the Confederacy," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 14 (1927): 342-59; James W. Livingood and Gilbert E. Govan, A Different Valor: The Story of General Joseph E. Johnston, C.S.A. (New York, 1956).

18. The best military biography of McClellan is Warren W. Hassler's General George B. McClellan: Shield of the Union (Baton Rouge, 1957).

19. For Davis and Beauregard, see especially T. Harry Williams, P. G. T. Beauregard, Napoleon in Gray (Baton Rouge, 1954) and Alfred Roman, The Military Operations of General Beauregard . . . , 2 vols. (New York, 1884).

20. For Davis's reluctance to relieve Johnston, see his Rise and Fall, 2: 561.

21. See Nathaniel C. Hughes, Jr., General William J. Hardee: Old Reliable (Baton Rouge, 1965), pp. 215-16, for Hardee's failure to be selected.

22. For some comments on Northern political generals, see L. H. Johnson, "Civil War Military History: A Few Revisions in Need of Revising," Civil War History, 17 (June, 1971): 128-30.

23. Ezra Warner, Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders (Baton Rouge, 1964), pp. xviii-xix.

24. David Donald, ed., Why the North Won the Civil War (Baton Rouge, 1960), p. 107.

25. For a discussion of this point, see Robert S. Henry, "First with the Most" Forrest (New York, 1944), pp. 307-10.

26. William J. Cooper, "A Reassessment of Jefferson Davis as War Leader: The...



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