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The Great Gatsby: Grief, Jazz and the Eye-Witness
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Mitchell Breitwieser  

Mitchell Breitwieser teaches American literature at UC, Berkeley. He is the author of American Puritanism and the Defense of Mourning: Religion, Grief, and Ethnology in Mary White Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative (Wisconsin 1991). He is beginning a book on Fitzgerald's career, of which the essay in this issue is the first piece.


1. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, ed. and intro. Matthew J. Bruccoli (Washington, D.C.: Microcard Editions Books, 1973) 251.

2. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 253.

3. Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, trans. Hazel E. Barnes (New York: Philosophical Library) 9-10.

4. Jacques Lacan, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, ed. Jacques-Alain Miller, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977) 74.

5. Matthew J. Bruccoli, preface to The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript xvi-xviii.

6. Being and Nothingness 256.

7. Maurice Blanchot, The Writing of Disaster, trans. Ann Smock (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986) 52.

8. The Writing of Disaster 49.

9. The Crack-Up (New York: New Directions, 1945) 20.

10. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 52.

11. The Crack-Up 22.

12. Gilles Deleuze, The Logic of Sense, trans. Mark Lester (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990) 154-61.

13. "Another Reading of The Great Gatsby," in Harold Bloom, ed., F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (New York: Chelsea House, 1986) 57-70.

14. 28.

15. Warren I. Sussman, Culture as History: The Transformation of American Society in the Twentieth Century (New York: Pantheon, 1984) 106, 108.

16. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 3.

17. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 74.

18. Judith Fetterley, The Resisting Reader: A Feminist Approach to American Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978) 77, 79.

19. Ralph Ellison, "The Little Man at Chehaw Station," Going to the Territory (New York: Vintage, 1987) 13.

20. Roland Barthes, S/Z, trans. Richard Miller (New York: Hill and Wang, 1974) 19-20.

21. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 36. Compare final text, p. 21.

22. Tzvetan Todorov, The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre, trans. Richard Howard (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975) 25.

23. Being and Nothingness 258.

24. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 53.

25. Being and Nothingness 286.

26. Quoted in Scott Donaldson, Fool for Love (New York: Congden and Weed, 1983) 186.

27. Frantz Fanon, Toward the African Revolution, trans. Haakon Chevalier (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1967) 36.

28. Being and Nothingness 258. See also 275.

29. Jacques Lacan, "The Subversion of the Subject and the Dialectic of Desire," in Ecrits, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: Norton, 1977) 305.

30. I am indebted to Abdul JanMohamed's work on Wright for this view of the role of specularity in Native Son.

31. See Charlie Gillette, The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll (New York: Pantheon, 1983).

32. James Lincoln Collier, The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History (New York: Delta, 1978) 146.

33. Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man (New York: Vintage, 1972) 8.

34. Kathy J. Oggren, The jazz Revolution: Twenties America and the Meaning of Jazz (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989) 159. Compare Burnett James, Bix Beiderbecke (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1961) 15: "Paul Whiteman, though called the 'King of Jazz,' fronted an orchestra of semi-symphonic proportions. His jazzmen had their way from time to time, but in essence only as a sideline."

35. Winton Marsalis, "Winton: Prophet in Standard Time," Down Beat (September, 1990) 18.

36. Hayden Carruth, "Eleven Memoranda on the Culture of Jazz," Conjunctions 9 (New York: David R. Godine, 1986) 68, 72.

37. The Crack-Up 16, 18.

38. Darrell Mansell, "The Jazz History of the World in The Great Gatsby," English Language Notes 25, 2 (December, 1987) 57-62.

39. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 54-6.

40. The Great Gatsby: A Facsimile of the Manuscript 217.

41. The Making of Jazz 81.

42. Richard Hadlock, Jazz Masters of the 20s (New York: Da Capo, 1988) 195...

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