World Politics 48.1, October 1995
Evans, Peter B., 1944-.
Katzenstein, Peter J.
Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber.
Scott, James C.
The Role of Theory in Comparative Politics: A
- Comparative government -- Congresses.
- The Center of International Studies at Princeton University
organized a symposium during 1993-94 on the role of theory in
comparative politics. Presented here is an edited and condensed
version of the proceedings. In light of recent challenges posed by
both rational choice and postmodern cultural approaches, the symposium
helped elucidate the merits of competing theoretical approaches. A
group of distinguished scholars presented a variety of views on the
subject. In spite of recent intellectual developments, a diverse group
of symposium participants adhered to a loosely defined "core," or to
what one participant characterized as the "eclectic center" of
Qian, Yingyi, 1956-.
Weingast, Barry R.
Federalism, Chinese Style: The Political Basis for Economic
Success in China
- China -- Politics and government -- 1976-.
- China -- Economic policy -- 1976-.
- China's remarkable economic success rests on a foundation of
political reform providing a considerable degree of credible
commitment to markets. This reform reflects a special type of
institutionalized decentralization that the authors call "federalism,
Chinese style." This form of decentralization has three consequences.
First, it fosters competition, not only in product markets, but also
among local governments for labor and foreign capital. This
competition, in turn, encourages local government experimentation and
learning with new forms of enterprises, regulation, and economic
relationships. Second, it provides incentives for local governments to
promote local economic prosperity. Finally, it provides a significant
amount of protection to local governments and their enterprises from
political intrusion by the central government.
Roberts, Kenneth M.
Neoliberalism and the Transformation of Populism in Latin
America: The Peruvian Case
- Peru -- Politics and government -- 1980-.
- Populism -- Latin America.
- Latin American populism is generally associated with the
developmental stage of import substitution industrialization; it is
thus widely presumed to have been eclipsed by the debt crisis of the
1980s and the free market reforms of the neoliberal era. However, the
leadership of Alberto Fujimori in Peru suggests that new forms of
populism may be emerging despite the fiscal constraints of neoliberal
austerity. This new variant of populism thrives in a context where
economic crisis and social dislocation undermine traditional
representative institutions, enabling personalist leaders to establish
unmediated relationships with heterogeneous, atomized masses.
Political support can be cultivated through populist attacks on
entrenched political elites or institutions, along with targeted but
highly visible poverty alleviation programs. This new form of populist
autocracy complements the efforts of neoliberal technocrats to
circumvent the representative institutions that are integral to
democratic accountability. The Peruvian case thus demonstrates that
populism has been transformed rather than eclipsed during the
neoliberal era and that it should be decoupled theoretically from any
particular phase or model of economic development.
- The end of the cold war has generated numerous reflections on the
nature of the world in its aftermath. The reduced military threat to
American security has triggered proposals for expanding the concept of
national security to include nonmilitary threats to national
well-being. Some go further and call for a fundamental reexamination
of the concepts, theories, and assumptions used to analyze security
problems. In order to lay the groundwork for such a reexamination, the
emergence and evolution of security studies as a subfield of
international relations is surveyed, the adequacy of the field for
coping with the post-cold war world is assessed, and proposals
for the future of security studies are discussed. It is argued that a
strong case can be made for reintegration of security studies with the
study of international politics and foreign policy.
Shultz, Richard H., 1947-, ed.
Godson, Roy, 1942-, ed.
Greenwood, Ted, 1944-, ed.
Review Article: Security Studies for the 1990s
- National security -- Study and teaching (Higher).
- Reviewer: Baldwin, David A. (David Allen), 1936-.
- Review title: Security studies and the end of the cold