The Conflict Resolution Model was formulated by a group of Australian
psychologists who set about integrating the literature on achieving
mutually beneficial outcomes in a conflict situation in order to create
a best-practice prescriptive process for conflict resolution. A number of
experimental studies conducted at the University of Tasmania with students
and school-aged children have found significantly improved outcomes
in resolving conflict following training in listening, assertiveness,
and problem-solving skills identified in the model. These skills are
also core elements of the theory of healthy relationships formulated in
1970 by Thomas Gordon and implemented in Parent Effectiveness Training
(PET). Research on both programs is presented here.
What we know about coping—the theory, conceptual framework,
what is good and bad coping, and how we learn to cope—has important
implications for how we deal with life circumstances and, in particular,
how we manage conflict. This article outlines how we conceptualize
coping as a response to stress and as a means to develop resilience. The
measurement of the construct and the insights that research has provided
have enabled us to develop programs to teach young people how to cope. One
such program, the Best of Coping, is detailed and evaluated in a number
of school settings in Australia and Italy. The implications of using a
language of coping in educational contexts provides a promising mechanism
for equipping young people to deal with the conflicts and difficulties
that may arise in their lives, within and beyond school settings.
This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive
conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions
under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive
are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social
development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types
of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are
identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution
leading to positive cognitive outcomes, and correspond to a cooperative
relationship. Relational elaborations focus students on competence
differentials and lead either to compliance or to competitive
confrontations. Implications for education are discussed.
Columbia University. Teachers College. International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.
Conflict management -- Study and teaching.
Cooperation -- Study and teaching.
Group work in education.
Violence and alienation are common occurrences in the lives of many
young people today. This article presents an overview of the work of the
International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCCR)
at Teachers College, Columbia University, which is aimed at helping
individuals, schools, communities, businesses, and governments better
understand the nature of conflict and develop the skills and settings that
enable them to resolve conflict fairly and constructively. The article
begins by outlining the basic elements of the theoretical approach,
and then presents three projects initiated by the ICCCR during the past
decade, spanning from work with preschoolers to work with delegates to the
United Nations. A set of practical guidelines for implementing conflict
resolution interventions in schools and communities is detailed.
Astor, Ron Avi.
Meyer, Heather Ann.
International data suggests that the most successful violence
prevention programs are adapted to fit a specific school site and involve
all of the constituents in a school setting. In contrast to many of the
popular skills-based programs that are commonly implemented in schools
across the United States, the authors explore the utility of combining
monitoring and mapping techniques to prevent specific forms of school
violence and aggression in specific spaces and times in school. Examples
of the successful implementation of monitoring and mapping techniques
in schools are provided.
All students can be taught how to manage conflicts constructively by
integrating training into the existing school curriculum. This article
describes a practical and effective approach to curriculum-integrated
conflict resolution training that involves students in repeatedly using
integrative negotiation and peer mediation procedures to resolve diverse
conflicts found in subject matter. Research results indicate that this
approach to conflict training not only enables students to learn, use,
and develop more positive attitudes toward conflict resolution, it also
enhances academic achievement.
Educators for Social Responsibility (U.S.). Resolving Conflict Creatively Program.
Mediation -- Study and teaching.
The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) is a K-12 program
characterized by a comprehensive, multi-year strategy for preventing
violence and creating caring and peaceable communities of learning
that improve school success for all children. First developed as an
initiative of the New York City Public Schools and the Educators for
Social Responsibility NYC chapter (ESR Metro) in 1985, RCCP now serves
more than 400 schools in 16 urban, suburban, and rural school districts
across the United States. Throughout its history, local sites have
evaluated the effectiveness of RCCP in their settings and how well
RCCP met local goals and objectives. While the research questions have
differed somewhat from site to site, there is sufficient similarity
in the results to determine that RCCP is effective. In this article,
the results of individual assessments are presented and trends across
sites are noted.
The Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers Program trains every student
in a school in the competencies they need to (a) resolve conflicts
constructively and (b) make their schools safe places in which to
learn. The program is directly based on the theory and research on
constructive conflict resolution. More than 16 studies in 2 different
countries have been conducted on the program's effectiveness. The evidence
indicates that without training, children and adolescents tend to manage
their conflicts in destructive ways. When given training, however,
they learn how to engage in integrative negotiations and how to mediate
their schoolmates' conflicts. They maintain their ability to do so months
after the training has ended. They apply the learned procedures to actual
conflicts in the classroom, school, and family settings. Learning the
negotiation and mediation procedures can be integrated with academic
learning in a way that enhances subject matter understanding.
Chinese educators recognize that for their students to take advantage
of new opportunities, as well as handle emerging threats in their rapidly
changing society, they must learn to manage many conflicts. But Chinese
collectivism and valuing harmony may seem to make Western approaches
to conflict resolution culturally inappropriate. This article reviews
recent research that provides a theoretical foundation for the training of
conflict skills among Chinese students. Contrary to common assumptions,
studies indicate that Chinese people not only can manage their conflicts
openly but they can do so productively and enjoyably. Chinese values need
not work against managing conflict. Indeed, when appropriately expressed,
Chinese values have been found to promote open, constructive conflict
management. These recent studies suggest how Western-based training on
cooperative conflict can be modified for effective, culturally acceptable
conflict management training in China.