Theory Into Practice

Theory Into Practice
Volume 43, Number 1, Winter 2004
Guest Editors: David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson

CONTENTS

    Davidson, John.
    Wood, Christine.
  • A Conflict Resolution Model
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conflict management -- Study and teaching.
    • Conflict management -- Evaluation.
    • Gordon, Thomas, 1918- Parent effectiveness training.
    Abstract:
      The Conflict Resolution Model was formulated by a group of Australian psychologists who set about integrating the literature on achieving mutually beneficial outcomes in a conflict situation in order to create a best-practice prescriptive process for conflict resolution. A number of experimental studies conducted at the University of Tasmania with students and school-aged children have found significantly improved outcomes in resolving conflict following training in listening, assertiveness, and problem-solving skills identified in the model. These skills are also core elements of the theory of healthy relationships formulated in 1970 by Thomas Gordon and implemented in Parent Effectiveness Training (PET). Research on both programs is presented here.
    Frydenberg, Erica, 1943-
  • Coping Competencies: What to Teach and When
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    Subject Headings:
    • Adjustment (Psychology)
    • Life skills -- Study and teaching.
    Abstract:
      What we know about coping—the theory, conceptual framework, what is good and bad coping, and how we learn to cope—has important implications for how we deal with life circumstances and, in particular, how we manage conflict. This article outlines how we conceptualize coping as a response to stress and as a means to develop resilience. The measurement of the construct and the insights that research has provided have enabled us to develop programs to teach young people how to cope. One such program, the Best of Coping, is detailed and evaluated in a number of school settings in Australia and Italy. The implications of using a language of coping in educational contexts provides a promising mechanism for equipping young people to deal with the conflicts and difficulties that may arise in their lives, within and beyond school settings.
    Buchs, Céline.
    Butera, Fabrizio, 1965-
    Mugny, Gabriel.
    Darnon, Céline.
  • Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes
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    Subject Headings:
    • Learning, Psychology of.
    • Group work in education.
    • Social interaction in children.
    Abstract:
      This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, and correspond to a cooperative relationship. Relational elaborations focus students on competence differentials and lead either to compliance or to competitive confrontations. Implications for education are discussed.
    Coleman, Peter T., 1959-
    Fisher-Yoshida, Beth.
  • Conflict Resolution at Multiple Levels Across the Lifespan: The Work of the ICCCR
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    Subject Headings:
    • Columbia University. Teachers College. International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.
    • Conflict management -- Study and teaching.
    • Cooperation -- Study and teaching.
    • Group work in education.
    Abstract:
      Violence and alienation are common occurrences in the lives of many young people today. This article presents an overview of the work of the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCCR) at Teachers College, Columbia University, which is aimed at helping individuals, schools, communities, businesses, and governments better understand the nature of conflict and develop the skills and settings that enable them to resolve conflict fairly and constructively. The article begins by outlining the basic elements of the theoretical approach, and then presents three projects initiated by the ICCCR during the past decade, spanning from work with preschoolers to work with delegates to the United Nations. A set of practical guidelines for implementing conflict resolution interventions in schools and communities is detailed.
    Astor, Ron Avi.
    Benbenishty, Rami.
    Meyer, Heather Ann.
  • Monitoring and Mapping Student Victimization in Schools
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    Subject Headings:
    • School violence -- Prevention.
    • Bullying in schools -- Prevention.
    • School violence -- Statistical methods.
    Abstract:
      International data suggests that the most successful violence prevention programs are adapted to fit a specific school site and involve all of the constituents in a school setting. In contrast to many of the popular skills-based programs that are commonly implemented in schools across the United States, the authors explore the utility of combining monitoring and mapping techniques to prevent specific forms of school violence and aggression in specific spaces and times in school. Examples of the successful implementation of monitoring and mapping techniques in schools are provided.
    Stevahn, Laurie, 1956-
  • Integrating Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Training Into the Curriculum
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conflict management -- Study and teaching.
    • Cooperation -- Study and teaching.
    • Group work in education.
    Abstract:
      All students can be taught how to manage conflicts constructively by integrating training into the existing school curriculum. This article describes a practical and effective approach to curriculum-integrated conflict resolution training that involves students in repeatedly using integrative negotiation and peer mediation procedures to resolve diverse conflicts found in subject matter. Research results indicate that this approach to conflict training not only enables students to learn, use, and develop more positive attitudes toward conflict resolution, it also enhances academic achievement.
    Selfridge, Jennifer.
  • The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: How We Know It Works
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    Subject Headings:
    • Educators for Social Responsibility (U.S.). Resolving Conflict Creatively Program.
    • Mediation -- Study and teaching.
    • Social learning.
    Abstract:
      The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) is a K-12 program characterized by a comprehensive, multi-year strategy for preventing violence and creating caring and peaceable communities of learning that improve school success for all children. First developed as an initiative of the New York City Public Schools and the Educators for Social Responsibility NYC chapter (ESR Metro) in 1985, RCCP now serves more than 400 schools in 16 urban, suburban, and rural school districts across the United States. Throughout its history, local sites have evaluated the effectiveness of RCCP in their settings and how well RCCP met local goals and objectives. While the research questions have differed somewhat from site to site, there is sufficient similarity in the results to determine that RCCP is effective. In this article, the results of individual assessments are presented and trends across sites are noted.
    Johnson, David W., 1940-
    Johnson, Roger T., 1938-
  • Implementing the "Teaching Students to be Peacemakers Program"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conflict management -- Study and teaching.
    • School violence -- Prevention.
    • Social learning.
    Abstract:
      The Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers Program trains every student in a school in the competencies they need to (a) resolve conflicts constructively and (b) make their schools safe places in which to learn. The program is directly based on the theory and research on constructive conflict resolution. More than 16 studies in 2 different countries have been conducted on the program's effectiveness. The evidence indicates that without training, children and adolescents tend to manage their conflicts in destructive ways. When given training, however, they learn how to engage in integrative negotiations and how to mediate their schoolmates' conflicts. They maintain their ability to do so months after the training has ended. They apply the learned procedures to actual conflicts in the classroom, school, and family settings. Learning the negotiation and mediation procedures can be integrated with academic learning in a way that enhances subject matter understanding.
    Tjosvold, Dean.
    Fang, Sofia Su.
  • Cooperative Conflict Management as a Basis for Training Students in China
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conflict management -- China.
    • Cooperation -- China.
    • Social learning.
    Abstract:
      Chinese educators recognize that for their students to take advantage of new opportunities, as well as handle emerging threats in their rapidly changing society, they must learn to manage many conflicts. But Chinese collectivism and valuing harmony may seem to make Western approaches to conflict resolution culturally inappropriate. This article reviews recent research that provides a theoretical foundation for the training of conflict skills among Chinese students. Contrary to common assumptions, studies indicate that Chinese people not only can manage their conflicts openly but they can do so productively and enjoyably. Chinese values need not work against managing conflict. Indeed, when appropriately expressed, Chinese values have been found to promote open, constructive conflict management. These recent studies suggest how Western-based training on cooperative conflict can be modified for effective, culturally acceptable conflict management training in China.

Additional Resources for Classroom Use

Book Reviews

    Koltutsky, Laura.
  • Conflict Resolution Communication: Patterns Promoting Peaceful Schools (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lincoln, Melinda, 1948- Conflict resolution communication: patterns promoting peaceful schools.
    • Communication in education -- United States.
    Corby, Kate.
  • Creating Safe Schools for All Children (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Duke, Daniel Linden. Creating safe schools for all children.
    • Schools -- United States -- Safety measures.
    Shaftoe, David.
  • Kids Working It Out: Stories and Strategies for Making Peace in Our Schools (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jones, Tricia S., ed. Kids working it out: stories and strategies for making peace in our schools.
    • Compton, Randy, ed.
    • School violence -- United States -- Prevention -- Case studies.



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