Theory Into Practice

Theory Into Practice
Volume 42, Number 4, Autumn 2003
Guest Editor: Carol Weinstein


Contents

Articles

    Weinstein, Carol Simon.
    Curran, Mary Elizabeth.
    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra.
  • Culturally Responsive Classroom Management: Awareness Into Action
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • Multicultural education -- United States.
    • Teacher-student relationships -- United States.
    • Education, Elementary -- United States.
    Abstract:
      This article expands discussions of culturally responsive pedagogy by focusing specifically on the tasks and challenges of classroom organization and management. First, we examine three prerequisite understandings that underlie teachers' ability to manage diverse classrooms in culturally competent ways. We then consider specific approaches and strategies for enacting culturally responsive classroom management (CRCM) and reflect on the ways that management practices promote or obstruct equal access to learning. We stress the fact that developing CRCM is an ongoing, long-term, and often discomfiting process, in which cultural diversity becomes a lens through which teachers view the tasks of classroom management.
    Brown, Dave F.
  • Urban Teachers' Use of Culturally Responsive Management Strategies
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • Multicultural education -- United States.
    • Teacher-student relationships -- United States.
    • Education, Urban -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Gaining students' cooperation in urban classrooms involves establishing an environment where teachers address students' cultural and ethnic needs, as well as their social, emotional, and cognitive needs. This article describes the management strategies of 13 1st- through 12th-grade urban teachers from seven cities throughout the United States. These educators' practices are compared to the literature on culturally responsive teaching. All 13 teachers use several culturally responsive strategies—including demonstrating care for students, acting with authority and assertiveness, and using congruent communication patterns to establish a productive learning environment for their diverse students.
    Delpit, Lisa D.
    White-Bradley, Paula.
  • Educating or Imprisoning the Spirit: Lessons from Ancient Egypt
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • Egypt -- Civilization -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- Activity programs -- United States.
    • African American children -- Education (Elementary)
    Abstract:
      In this article the authors describe the programmed and scripted nature of many mandated instructional and "management" programs designed to raise test scores of urban children in low-income communities. They detail the programs' dehumanizing effect on the ways teachers and students interact, and the resentment the programs instill in the children they are supposed to benefit. The authors then show how one teacher has looked to an ancient African philosophy to seek more deeply meaningful methods of classroom interaction, methods that affirm children's and teachers' ability to think, feel, and develop as human beings.
    McLaughlin, H. James.
    Bryan, Lynn A.
  • Learning from Rural Mexican Schools About Commitment and Work
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- Mexico.
    • Education, Elementary -- Curricula -- Mexico.
    • Education, Rural -- Aims and objectives -- Mexico.
    Abstract:
      During the last 3 years we have made many visits to two rural Mexican primary schools. As a result of our experiences there, we believe that students' sense of responsibility in a school setting depends on the nature of the commitments they make and the work they do in and for the school. We have also learned that certain educational and social concepts expressed in Spanish can enrich our thinking about the social curriculum that teachers and students create in classrooms. In this article we explore the idea of students' "social work" by explaining what we are learning in these Mexican schools and providing examples from selected writings about life in U.S. classrooms.
    McCarthy, Jane E.
    Benally, Joe.
  • Classroom Management in a Navajo Middle School
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- Navajo Indian Reservation.
    • Navajo children -- Education (Middle school) -- Navajo Indian Reservation.
    Abstract:
      Classroom management presents a serious challenge in most schools, but especially in schools on a Navajo Reservation that have been traditionally academically low-performing schools. There appears to be a mismatch between the attitudes, skills, and behaviors Navajo children bring with them to school and the expectations schools have for their behavior. This becomes especially evident at the middle-school level as peer pressure reaches its zenith, often leading to off-task behavior that can impact instructional effectiveness and have long-term effects on student success in life. This article explores the cultural context of a Navajo middle school and the managerial interventions applied by faculty, staff, and administrators who employed a rigorous inquiry process to identify the specific challenges before jumping to solutions.
    Weiner, Lois.
  • Why Is Classroom Management So Vexing to Urban Teachers?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • Urban schools -- United States.
    • Teacher-student relationships -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Why is classroom management especially problematic for urban teachers, and why has research yielded so few helpful answers to this question? In this article I take up both questions, suggesting that the answer to both emanates from the same source: the reliance on deficit paradigms to explain underachievement of students who have historically not been served well by urban schools. I explain why teachers who create orderly classrooms that are academically demanding must establish and reinforce social norms in their classrooms that contravene the deficit paradigm, the dominant ideology of most urban schools. The article concludes with an examination of how my theory is illustrated by reframing, a technique for changing problem behavior in schools.
    Norris, Jacqueline A.
  • Looking at Classroom Management Through a Social and Emotional Learning Lens
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • Emotional intelligence -- United States.
    • Learning, Psychology of.
    Abstract:
      Social and emotional learning (SEL) is an approach that teaches self-regulation, self-monitoring, and social skills in school settings. SEL has been shown to be an effective method of reducing negative social interactions and increasing academic achievement. This article relates the experiences of one intermediate school principal and her staff as they used SEL strategies to change the climate and culture of their highly diverse school population. Classroom management is discussed as the vehicle used by the teachers, while the principal aligned school procedures with the philosophy of SEL. The article describes the lessons they learned and suggests directions for future research into how SEL can make effective and meaningful contributions to the field of education.
    Wentzel, Kathryn R.
  • Motivating Students to Behave in Socially Competent Ways
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom environment -- United States.
    • Motivation in education -- United States.
    • Social skills -- Study and teaching (Secondary) -- United States.
    • Education, Secondary -- Aims and objectives -- United States.
    Abstract:
      A full appreciation of why students display positive classroom behavior requires an understanding of students' personal goals, as well as the degree to which these goals are valued by teachers and peers. A caring classroom environment in which teachers and peers support and promote the expression of positive social behaviors appears to play a critical role in promoting students' adoption and pursuit of positive social goals. In this article, an ecological perspective is introduced as a framework for understanding ways teachers and classmates can create a caring classroom environment and in doing so, contribute to a student's sense of belongingness and motivate engagement in appropriate classroom behavior. The implications of this perspective for understanding how to promote the development of social competencies across diverse student populations are discussed.
    Soodak, Leslie C.
  • Classroom Management in Inclusive Settings
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • Children with disabilities -- Education (Elementary) -- United States.
    • Special education -- Aims and objectives -- United States.
    Abstract:
      The inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classes provides an opportunity for teachers to identify classroom management policies and practices that promote diversity and community. Community-building management strategies that facilitate friendships, collaboration, parent involvement, and address challenging behaviors in a positive, proactive, and educative manner are consistent with the goals of inclusive education. In addition, in order to develop a truly inclusive school community, management policies and practices that are inconsistent with inclusive education—such as exclusionary discipline policies—need to be addressed by teachers and administrators.
    Curran, Mary Elizabeth.
  • Linguistic Diversity and Classroom Management
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • English language -- United States -- Acquisition.
    Abstract:
      In spite of the growing linguistic diversity in U.S. classrooms, many teachers are not being adequately prepared to work with English language learners (ELLs). One area of particular concern for teachers is how to manage today's linguistically diverse classrooms. This article suggests ways educators can reflect on English language learners' needs and consider the implications for classroom management. The author focuses on the need to (a) understand the perspective of ELLs and the natural responses to being immersed in a second language, (b) use pedagogical strategies that aid in second language acquisition, and (c) create a classroom climate that affirms linguistic diversity.
    Noguera, Pedro.
  • Schools, Prisons, and Social Implications of Punishment: Rethinking Disciplinary Practices
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    Subject Headings:
    • Classroom management -- United States.
    • School children -- Discipline -- Social aspects -- United States.
    • Education, Elementary -- Aims and objectives -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Throughout the United States, schools most frequently punish the students who have the greatest academic, social, economic, and emotional needs. An examination of which students are most likely to be suspended, expelled, or removed from the classroom for punishment, reveals that minorities (especially Blacks and Latinos), males, and low achievers are vastly overrepresented. The enactment of zero tolerance policies related to discipline in school districts has contributed to a significant increase in the number of children who are being suspended and expelled from school. This article explains why this has occurred and puts forward an alternative approach to discipline that is aligned with the educational mission of schools.

Book Review

    Garrett, Tracey.
  • Being Good: Rethinking Classroom Management and Student Discipline (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wolk, Steven. Being good: rethinking classroom management and student discipline.
    • Classroom management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.



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