Law reporting -- Technological innovations -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Computer-aided transcription systems -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Over the last half-century, the techniques and technologies used by courtroom stenographers have been transformed from mechanical tools to digital computers, from just-in-time print to real-time display, and from information commodity to information service. And as with the labor pools of other services related to information, both the sexual demographics and cultural gendering of courtroom stenography have changed, being now a specialized field dominated by females. None of these changes was obvious, deterministic, or uncontested. This article draws upon the published primary and secondary writings of courtroom-technology innovators, courtroom personnel managers, and professional court reporters to relate the story of the computerization of courtroom stenography.
Radiology, Medical -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Race awareness -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
This essay contributes to recent calls to "desegregate" the subjects of race and technology and interrogate technology as a tool that has historically made racial hierarchies possible. It considers the false reporting of "successful experiments" employing X rays and radium to whiten black skin in 1903 and 1904 as attempts by whites to exorcise the threats that these new technologies posed to established categories of race and racial superiority. It asks not why such experiments occurred, but rather why whites across the country believed they did. By analyzing the rhetorical coverage of these events and placing them in the context of contemporary fantasies about the power of X rays and radium, the piece argues that the degree to which we accept technologies depends, at least in part, on the ability of groups in power to reject the uses or effects of those technologies that might challenge accepted cultural "truths."
Microscopy -- Economic aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Academic-industrial collaboration -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Longstanding debates about the role of the university in national culture and the global economy have usually centered on one university, region, or discipline. I propose a new unit of analysis, the "instrumental community," i.e. a community dedicated to developing a particular class of instruments. Such communities span regions, firms, universities, and disciplines. The commercialization of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy between 1981 and 1996 is a striking example of such a community. Analysis of the commercialization of STM and AFM contradicts the positions of both supporters and opponents of academic entrepreneurialism.
Crossbows -- Great Britain -- History -- Edward I, 1272-1307.
Great Britain -- History, Military -- 1066-1485.
Because of the enormous increase in military activity during the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century, royal officials serving Edward I (1272Ð1307) were faced with the need to acquire far larger numbers of crossbows and crossbow bolts than had been the case under Edward's predecessors. In order to save money, royal administrative officials pursued two distinct policies with regard to these weapons. First, royal officers purchased and deployed the new technology of a removable winch that could be transferred from one crossbow to another, thereby cutting down on the total number of these expensive devices that were required for service. Royal officials also made a conscious decision to deploy very large numbers of the least expensive wooden "one-foot" crossbows in place of the more expensive, although more powerful, composite crossbows of the "two-foot" and winched types. In pursuing this cost-saving measure, Edward's officials deviated from the arms acquisition policies of Henry III's reign.
Petroleum chemicals industry -- Louisiana -- History.
Numerous locational advantages spurred and sustained several decades of industrial development along the lower reaches of the Mississippi River in Louisiana. In recent years, some of the attractive features of the region have lost their luster and decline has set in. Much of the industrial growth occurred when abundant oil and natural gas reserved existed both on shore and in the Gulf of Mexico and during lulls in extreme weather events such, most notably hurricanes. Yet declining reserves and the shift of production to outer continental shelf locations have made production more susceptible to disruption due to storms. Increasing costs associated with environmental regulation and cleaning up past disposal sites has reduced the region's lure. Sharp spikes in natural gas prices have caused the closure of several plants using that resource as a raw material. In 2005, hurricanes Katrina and Rita followed a series of tropical storms in previous years causing major disruptions to oil and gas production, along with petrochemical processing. These related factors are producing the early signs of rust on the chemical corridor.
Restoration ecology -- Louisiana -- New Orleans -- History -- 20th century.
Environmental policy -- Louisiana -- New Orleans -- History -- 20th century.
Disaster relief -- Louisiana -- New Orleans -- History -- 20th century.
In Louisiana, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers faces the enormous challenge of rebuilding a delta region that is quickly sinking. The challenge is complicated by the fact that many of the Corps's own flood control and navigation projects have accelerated sinking of the wetlands. Another complication is that the Corps's hurricane protection programs have been hampered by environmental lawsuits. After 1965, for example, when Hurricane Betsy breached the levees of Lake Pontchartrain, environmentalists blocked the Corps's plan to build gated hurricane barriers. Corps engineers repeatedly warned that, without hurricane barriers, the New Orleans levees might not withstand a Bestylike Class Three storm. Yet environmentalists claimed that hurricane barriers would spread housing projects that posed a threat to coastal wetlands. Ironically, tragically, the same massive engineering that protects coastal Louisiana also aggravates the sinking and deterioration that increases the impact of storms.
Hurricane Katrina was vast, horrendous, biblical in scope, and it occasioned a classic complex systems failure in the city of New Orleans. Coming back home after evacuating, I am, in a sense, returning to the city of my great-grandmother, a crescent of populated area along the river. New Orleans is a city with a good situation on trading routes, and a dreadful site, sealed in a bowl rimmed with water. Water, the city's best friend and worst enemy, has always been the focus of its primary technological problems. The technological tragedy of New orleans lies at the confluence of power and science. Power now lies with the federal government, specifically the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which made the technological choices that led to this catastrophe. Yet, I believe that New Orleans will continue. Changed, perhaps, but not deserted. And others, like me, who could live nowhere else, will still be here.
Petroleum chemicals industry -- Environmental aspects -- Louisiana.
Environmental protection -- Louisiana.
This article provides an overview of the petrochemical industry's transformation of Louisiana's Lower Mississippi River from Baton Rouge to New Orleans from the early 1900s to the present. First there is a broad discussion of why the industry choose this location for development. The focus is then on a historical understanding of how the conditions for the environmental justice movement came to exist. These include: patterns of early land ownership with both race and class implications; early, systematic denial of employment to African Americans, willful lack of industry oversight on the part of regulators; and tax and development schemes that depleted local community coffers and services.
Walter Prescott Webb's 1931 work, The Great Plains, remains a work of singular importance in the field of western history. Working almost entirely from secondary sources, Webb manages to produce an elegantly-written, expansive regional history that is brilliantly imaginative, and accurate in its conclusion: that the geographic-environmental character of the great plains forced settlers to modify successful eastern technologies and institutions in order to make them work in the vastly different landscape of the open treeless west. By twenty-first century standards, Webb's study has its shortcomings. Yet these do not lessen the power of his overall findings.
Weitekamp, Margaret A., 1971- Right stuff, wrong sex: America's first women in space program.
Kevles, Bettyann. Almost heaven: the story of women in space.
Nolen, Stephanie. Promised the moon: the untold story of the first women in the space race.
Freni, Pamela, 1954- Space for women: a history of women with the right stuff.
Women astronauts -- United States -- Biography.
Women astronauts -- Biography.
The author compares four works (two scholarly and two popular) on the same topic: an early 1960s medical study by the Lovelace Clinic in Albuquerque of the feasibility of using women pilots for NASA's Mercury astronaut program. The essay includes a synopsis of the Lovelace study, stymied by politics and technical requirements, not solely by American society's reluctance to have females fly "Right Stuff" vehicles. In concluding that only one of the four books, Margaret Weitekamp's Right Stuff, Wrong Gender, is adequately researched, analyzed, and written, the author makes the point that more scholarly work needs to be done in the field of aerospace history and gender. Without contributions from qualified aerospace historians, the void in that subgenre will be filled by amateurs or historians without topical knowledge who may disregard accepted rules of evidence-gathering and analysis or simply be unable to accurately interpret and write about what they uncover.