Lighthouses -- Technological innovations -- History -- 19th century.
Electric lighting, Arc -- History -- 19th century.
Technology and state -- History -- 19th century.
Beginning in 1859, the lighthouse was the site of the first commercial application of generator-powered electric-arc lighting. At the end of the century, however, only about thirty had been installed among thousands of lighthouses worldwide. In seeking to explain the differential adoption of the technology, this paper compares the performance characteristics of electric lights and its competitor, oil lamps. Although the electric arc was at a disadvantage in utilitarian performance characteristics, such as costs of installation and maintenance, it was an adequate light under most conditions and excelled in haze and light fog; it could also uniquely symbolize a nation's command of cutting-edge electrical science and technology. Most nations, favoring utilitarian performance characteristics in their decisions, adopted no electric lights. In adopting nations, especially France and England, symbolic performance was heavily weighted, for the electric light was both an aid to navigation and a political technology.
Aids to navigation -- Asia, Southeastern -- History -- 19th century.
Aids to navigation -- Asia, Southeastern -- History -- 20th century.
Aids to navigation -- Political aspects -- Asia, Southeastern -- History -- 19th century.
Aids to navigation -- Political aspects -- Asia, Southeastern -- History -- 20th century.
Technology and state -- Asia, Southeastern -- History -- 19th century.
Technology and state -- Asia, Southeastern -- History -- 20th century.
This article looks at patterns of movement, technology, and colonialism through the lens of the lighthouse. Specifically, it seeks to gauge what the contribution of lighthouses, beacons, and buoys were to British and Dutch programs of colonial state-formation in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The first quarter of the piece asks where these structures fit into the larger scheme of maritime technology and expansion in Southeast Asia during this time. The next segment of the essay delves into the geographic and temporal dispersion of these "tools of empire." The third section of the article interrogates the politics of lighting, as internecine cooperation and competition (both between the British and Dutch, and even internally in both camps) helped dictate deployment on the ground. The essay ends with an examination of shifting technologies of lighting, as new developments in lenses, fueling, and construction made certain structures quickly obsolete.
Pharmaceutical industry -- Prices -- Government policy -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Pharmaceutical policy -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly.
Antitrust investigations -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
This paper explores a regulatory campaign to promote access to antibiotics in the United States during the 1950s, and explains it as a reaction to prewar deprivation. It tracks a decade-long attempt to prevent the drug industry from replicating a perceived pattern of big business behavior blamed for underconsumption. The Depression-era Temporary National Economic Committee (TNEC) had explained low consumption by artificially high prices associated with excess profits, excessive marketing and restrictive patents of large companies. In the post-War years a group of TNEC veterans (including Walton Hamilton, Irene Till and John Blair) campaigned to protect the drug market from these vices: through a FTC enquiry which led to a judicial investigation, and through the Kefauver hearings in Congress. This campaign culminated in the in radical increase of FDA powers in 1962, albeit triggered by the thalidomide scare. Ironically the problems of under-consumption were given institutional teeth just at the time that the novel problem of the over-consumption of antibiotics was becoming serious.
Airports -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Airports -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Airports -- United States -- Management -- History -- 20th century.
Parks -- Government policy -- United States.
The story of the connection between airports and parks during the 1920s and 1930s weaves together a number of threads in the history of land use and the history of technology. Over time the definition of "park" transformed from idealized rural landscape to a location for multiple forms of recreation. At its introduction, while some emphasized more practical uses for the new machine, others saw the airplane as a source of mass entertainment. With the new definition of parks and the entertainment use of the airplane in mind, many proposed that park land could be used for aviation purposes. Though a certain degree of expediency also was involved, arguments based on the compatibility of parks and airports shaped the initial establishment of airports in a number of American cities, including Omaha, Nebraska, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Events in those cities represented the extreme on a continuum of action present during the 1920s and 1930s, with Omaha representing a short-term link and Minneapolis a more long-term and successful relationship.
Electric railroads -- Ohio -- Cincinnati -- History.
Electric railroads -- Wires and wiring -- History.
The street railway industry searched for a reliable and efficient motor to replace the horse for decades. By 1890 electricity was adopted for this purpose by transit operators. The new technology was in fact adopted with enthusiasm and most of the horse cars were gone by 1900. The universal plan included a single overhead wire charged with 600-volt DC current. The ground return was aided by bonded rail joints to complete the circuit. Only one major U.S. city , Cincinnati, chose to use a double-overhead trolley wire system. It had one power and one return wire separated by insulators. There was no substantial technical reason to justify this peculiar way of handling the power collection system. It was adopted because of a legal battle over interference with telephone service because of the ground return and efforts to consolidate the local street railways into a single system. Other factors included a city ban on disrupting street pavements and the opinion of a senior street-railway Titan that the double-wire plan was somehow superior.