Technology and Culture

Technology and Culture
Volume 45, Number 2, April 2004

CONTENTS

Articles

    Roberts, Lissa Louise, 1954-
  • An Arcadian Apparatus: The Introduction of the Steam Engine into the Dutch Landscape
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    Subject Headings:
    • Steam-engines -- Netherlands -- History -- 18th century.
    • Steam-engines -- Social aspects -- Netherlands -- History -- 18th century.
    • Landscape -- Social aspects -- Netherlands -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      This article begins by tracing the history that led to the construction of the first fully Dutch steam engine on the country estate of an urban oligarch. The goal here is to highlight the role of gardens and fountain design in the early development of steam engines and emphasize that Dutch interest in steam during the eighteenth century was based largely on issues related to drainage and water management. This concern with the landscape - whether on a private estate or in the "national garden" - is examined more broadly in the rest of the article, which treats the historical significance of placing such a novel apparatus in the Dutch landscape, both physically and symbolically. While the 'machine in the garden' proved a menacing image in other cultures, the steam engine's first Dutch advocates projected it as an Arcadian apparatus.
    Mazzotti, Massimo.
  • Enlightened Mills: Mechanizing Olive Oil Production in Mediterranean Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • Olive oil mills -- Europe, Southern -- History -- 18th century.
    • Olive oil presses -- Europe, Southern -- History -- 18th century.
    • Olive oil industry -- Social aspects -- Europe, Southern -- History -- 18th century.
    Abstract:
      In the latter part of the eighteenth century, reformers in southern Europe sought to revitalize the political economy of the region. As Massimo Mazzotti puts it in "Enlightened Mills: Mechanizing Olive Oil Production in Mediterranean Europe," they believed that "political and social advancement . . . would follow naturally from economic liberalization and the introduction of new technologies." Olive oil production dominated commercial activity around the Mediterranean, so reformers naturally concentrated their attention on that industry. Traditional oil-manufacturing technology "was a constitutive element of southern European societies," Mazzotti writes, and the production of oil was thoroughly bound up with traditional landscapes and customs; reformers made headway "only where [they] succeeded in reshaping traditional ways of life as well as traditional machinery." Mazzotti traces the many points of conflict-"such issues as the nature of olive oil, trade, control of the production process, the conditions of ownership of land and machinery, work discipline and labor organization, and the forging of new power relations in southern European society"-that conditioned the technical features of mechanized oil production in Mediterranean Europe.
    Petrina, Stephen.
  • Sidney Pressey and the Automation of Education, 1924-1934
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pressey, Sidney L. (Sidney Leavitt), 1888-1979.
    • Teaching machines -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Education -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Rather than dismiss the case of Sidney Pressey and the Automatic Teacher as just another failure in the history of educational technology and psychology, this article makes an argument for paying attention to the automation of the professions. Produced in the 1920s, the Automatic Teacher automated clerical and diagnostic skills and redefined productivity in terms of individualization. While standardizing education with teaching machines and tests, Pressey claimed to liberate teachers from burdens of drilling and testing and students from conformity in mass education. He nonetheless found out the hard way that his project of individualizing the masses was more easily automated than commercialized. The Welch Manufacturing Company produced 250 Automatic Teachers but shelved the project after selling only about 160.
    Tyabji, Nasir.
  • Gaining Technical Know-How in an Unequal World: Penicillin Manufacture in Nehru's India
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    Subject Headings:
    • India. Committee on the Penicillin Project.
    • Penicillin -- History.
    • Pharmaceutical industry -- Government policy -- India -- History -- 20th century.
    • Technology transfer -- Government policy -- India -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The paper examines the rationale behind the Government of India's decision to initiate the manufacture of penicillin through collaboration with specialized agencies of the United Nations. Initially the expectation had been that collaboration was essential with one of the prominent transnational companies which had proprietory knowledge in penicillin manufacture. This preference for aligning with a proven manufacturer rather than taking the more entrepreneurial route of depending on the United Nations was favoured by the Committee established to oversee the penicillin project which was chaired by a prominent industrialist. Prime Minister Nehru's intervention tilted the balance in favour of the United Nation's agencies. Nehru's choice in the matter was based on the advantages to India which would accrue from association with the United Nations, in addition to his reluctance to allow India to enter into a subordinate position through collaboration with a foreign manufacturer in as sensitive an area as pharmaceuticals.

Special Section: The Centennial of Flight

    De Syon, Guillaume, 1966-
  • What the Wrights Wrought: The Centennial of Flight in Recent Literature
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    Subject Headings:
    • Aeronautics -- History -- Bibliography.
    • Aeronautics -- Historiography.
    Douglas, Deborah G.
  • The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Aerial Age: At the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C.
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jakab, Peter L., cur. Wright brothers and the invention of the aerial age [exhibition]
    • National Air and Space Museum.
    • Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912 -- Exhibitions.
    • Wright, Orville, 1871-1948 -- Exhibitions.
    • Aeronautics -- History -- Exhibitions.
    Jones, Russell Douglass.
  • Heroes of the Sky: Adventures in Early Flight: At the Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan
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    Subject Headings:
    • Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village. Heroes of the sky: adventures in early flight [exhibition]
    • Aeronautics -- History -- Exhibitions.
    Post, Robert C.
  • A Narrative for Our Time: The Enola Gay "and after that, period"
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    Subject Headings:
    • National Air and Space Museum -- Exhibitions -- History.
    • Enola Gay (Bomber) -- Exhibitions -- History.
    • Public history -- United States.
    • Museum exhibits -- Political aspects -- United States.

Classics Revisited

    Volti, Rudi.
  • Social Change with Respect to Culture and Original Nature (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ogburn, William Fielding, 1886-1959. Social change with respect to culture and original nature.
    • Social change.

Essay Review

    Schatzberg, Eric, 1956-
  • On Attempting to Construct Alternative Narratives
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    Subject Headings:
    • Law, John, 1946- Aircraft stories: decentering the object in technoscience.
    • Entity (Philosophy)

Book Reviews

    Nye, David E., 1946-
  • Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Nature in Western Culture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Merchant, Carolyn. Reinventing Eden: the fate of nature in Western culture.
    • Human ecology -- Philosophy.
    Wakefield, Andre.
  • Openness, Secrecy, Authorship: Technical Arts and the Culture of Knowledge from Antiquity to the Renaissance (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Long, Pamela O. Openness, secrecy, authorship: technical arts and the culture of knowledge from antiquity to the Renaissance.
    • Technology and civilization -- History -- To 1500.
    Mazzotti, Massimo.
  • Volta: Science and Culture in the Age of Enlightenment (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pancaldi, Giuliano. Volta: science and culture in the Age of Enlightenment.
    • Volta, Alessandro, 1745-1827.
    Spector, Tami I.
  • Magick, Mayhem, and Mavericks: The Spirited History of Physical Chemistry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cobb, Cathy. Magick, mayhem, and mavericks: the spirited history of physical chemistry.
    • Chemistry, Physical and theoretical -- History.
    Gough, Jerry B., 1940-
  • When Champagne Became French: Wine and the Making of a National Identity, and: Camembert: A National Myth (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guy, Kolleen M., 1964- When champagne became French: wine and the making of a national identity.
    • Boisard, Pierre. Camembert: a national myth.
    • Miller, Richard, tr.
    • Champagne (Wine) -- History.
    • Camembert cheese -- History.
    Peters, Tom F. (Tom Frank), 1941-
  • Wilhelm von Traitteur: Ein badischer Baumeister als Neuerer in der russischen Architektur 1814-1832 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fedorov, Sergej G. Wilhelm von Traitteur: ein badischer Baumeister als Neuerer in der russischen Architektur 1814-1832.
    • Traitteur, Wilhelm von, 1788-1859.
    Luckin, Bill.
  • Constructing a Pipe-Bound City: A History of Water Supply, Sewerage, and Excreta Removal in Norrköping and Linköping, Sweden, 1860-1910 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hallström, Jonas. Constructing a pipe-bound city: a history of water supply, sewerage, and excreta removal in Norrköping and Linköping, Sweden, 1860-1910.
    • Norrköping (Sweden)
    Stilgoe, John R., 1949-
  • The Mighty Niagara: One River, Two Frontiers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jackson, John N. Mighty Niagara: one river, two frontiers.
    • Burtniak, John.
    • Stein, Gregory P.
    • Niagara River (N.Y. and Ont.) -- History.
    Harvey, Mark W. T. (Mark William Thornton)
  • The River We Have Wrought: A History of the Upper Mississippi (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Anfinson, John O. River we have wrought: a history of the upper Mississippi.
    • Human ecology -- Mississippi River.
    Thayer, Ralph E.
  • A River and Its City: The Nature of Landscape in New Orleans (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kelman, Ari, 1968- River and its city: the nature of landscape in New Orleans.
    • Urban ecology -- Louisiana -- New Orleans.
    Lakwete, Angela, 1949-
  • The South, the Nation, and the World: Perspectives on Southern Economic Development (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Carlton, David L. (David Lee), 1948- South, the nation, and the world: perspectives on southern economic development.
    • Coclanis, Peter A., 1952-
    • Southern States -- Economic conditions.
    Cooper, Carolyn C., 1934-
  • Measuring America: How an Untamed Wilderness Shaped the United States and Fulfilled the Promise of Democracy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Linklater, Andro. Measuring America: how an untamed wilderness shaped the United States and fulfilled the promise of democracy.
    • United States -- Geography.
    Ashworth, William J.
  • Measure for Measure: The Story of Imperial, Metric, and Other Units (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hebra, Alex, 1919- Measure for measure: the story of imperial, metric, and other units.
    • Weights and measures -- History.
    Rothenberg, Marc, 1949-
  • Latitude: How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Carter, Bill, 1939- Latitude: how American astronomers solved the mystery of variation.
    • Carter, Merri Sue, 1964-
    • Almucantar.
    Bijsterveld, Karin, 1961-
  • The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sterne, Jonathan, 1970- Audible past: cultural origins of sound reproduction.
    • Sound -- Recording and reproducing -- History.
    Horning, Susan Schmidt.
  • The Poetics of Rock: Cutting Tracks, Making Records (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Zak, Albin. Poetics of rock: cutting tracks, making records.
    • Rock music -- History and criticism.
    Miller, Carol Poh, 1950-
  • Invisible Giants: The Empires of Cleveland's Van Sweringen Brothers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harwood, Herbert H. Invisible giants: the empires of Cleveland's Van Sweringen brothers.
    • Van Sweringen, Oris Paxton, 1879-1936.
    Hood, Clifton.
  • Metropolitan Railways: Rapid Transit in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Middleton, William D., 1928- Metropolitan railways: rapid transit in America.
    • Local transit -- North America -- History.
    Tomayko, J. E. (James E.), 1949-
  • From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Campbell-Kelly, Martin. From airline reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: a history of the software industry.
    • Computer software industry -- History.
    Williams, Michael R.
  • Who Invented the Computer?: The Legal Battle that Changed Computing History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burks, Alice R., 1920- Who invented the computer?: the legal battle that changed computing history.
    • Computers -- United States -- History.
    Weir, Gary E.
  • Building the Trident Network: A Study of the Enrollment of People, Knowledge, and Machines (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mort, Maggie. Building the Trident network: a study of the enrollment of people, knowledge, and machines.
    • Trident (Weapons systems) -- Design and construction.
    Berger, Molly W.
  • Cool Comfort: America's Romance with Air-Conditioning (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ackermann, Marsha E. Cool comfort: America's romance with air-conditioning.
    • Air conditioning.
    Pretzer, William S.
  • A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cohen, Lizabeth. Consumers' republic: the politics of mass consumption.
    • Consumption (Economics) -- United States.
    McElheny, Victor K.
  • Tuxedo Park: A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science that Changed the Course of World War II (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conant, Jennet. Tuxedo Park: a Wall Street tycoon and the secret palace of science that changed the course of World War II.
    • Loomis, Alfred L. (Alfred Lee), 1887-1975.
    Westfall, Catherine.
  • The National Labs: Science in an American System, 1947-1974 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Westwick, Peter J. National labs: science in an American system, 1947-1974.
    • Laboratories -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Hacker, Barton C., 1935-
  • Memoirs: A Twentieth-Century Journey in Science and Politics (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Teller, Edward, 1908- Memoirs: a twentieth-century journey in science and politics.
    • Shoolery, Judith L.
    • Teller, Edward, 1908-
    Nadis, Fred, 1957-
  • Undead Science: Science Studies and the Afterlife of Cold Fusion (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Simon, Bart, 1966- Undead science: science studies and the afterlife of cold fusion.
    • Cold fusion.
    Millard, A. J.
  • How Breakthroughs Happen: The Surprising Truth about How Companies Innovate (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hargadon, Andrew. How breakthroughs happen: the surprising truth about how companies innovate.
    • Technological innovations -- Management.
    Volti, Rudi.
  • Crisis and Innovation in Asian Technology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Keller, William W. (William Walton), 1950-, ed. Crisis and innovation in Asian technology.
    • Samuels, Richard J., ed.
    • Technological innovations -- Economic aspects -- East Asia.
    Storey, William Kelleher.
  • Images and Contexts: The Historiography of Science and Modernity in India (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Raina, Dhruv. Images and contexts: the historiography of science and modernity in India.
    • Science -- India -- Historiography.
    Kim, Julie Ju-Youn.
  • The Organizational Complex: Architecture, Media, and Corporate Space (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Martin, Reinhold, 1964- Organizational complex: architecture, media, and corporate space.
    • Architecture and society -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Dermody, Robert J.
  • Artificial Love: A Story of Machines and Architecture (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shepheard, Paul. Artificial love: a story of machines and architecture.
    • Architecture and technology.
    Houltz, Anders.
  • Modernity and Technology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Misa, Thomas J., ed. Modernity and technology.
    • Brey, Philip, ed.
    • Feenberg, Andrew, ed.
    • Technology -- Social aspects.
    O'Gorman, Marcel.
  • The Digital Revolution and the Coming of the Postmodern University (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Raschke, Carl A. Digital revolution and the coming of the postmodern university.
    • Education, Higher -- Effect of technological innovations on.

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