Steam-engines -- Netherlands -- History -- 18th century.
Steam-engines -- Social aspects -- Netherlands -- History -- 18th century.
Landscape -- Social aspects -- Netherlands -- History -- 18th century.
This article begins by tracing the history that led to the construction of
the first fully Dutch steam engine on the country estate of an urban
oligarch. The goal here is to highlight the role of gardens and fountain
design in the early development of steam engines and emphasize that Dutch
interest in steam during the eighteenth century was based largely on issues
related to drainage and water management. This concern with the landscape -
whether on a private estate or in the "national garden" - is examined more
broadly in the rest of the article, which treats the historical significance
of placing such a novel apparatus in the Dutch landscape, both physically
and symbolically. While the 'machine in the garden' proved a menacing image
in other cultures, the steam engine's first Dutch advocates projected it as
an Arcadian apparatus.
Olive oil industry -- Social aspects -- Europe, Southern -- History -- 18th century.
In the latter part of the eighteenth century, reformers in southern
Europe sought to revitalize the political economy of the region. As
Massimo Mazzotti puts it in "Enlightened Mills: Mechanizing Olive Oil
Production in Mediterranean Europe," they believed that "political
and social advancement . . . would follow naturally from economic
liberalization and the introduction of new technologies." Olive oil
production dominated commercial activity around the Mediterranean, so
reformers naturally concentrated their attention on that industry.
Traditional oil-manufacturing technology "was a constitutive element
of southern European societies," Mazzotti writes, and the production
of oil was thoroughly bound up with traditional landscapes and
customs; reformers made headway "only where [they] succeeded in
reshaping traditional ways of life as well as traditional machinery."
Mazzotti traces the many points of conflict-"such issues as the
nature of olive oil, trade, control of the production process, the
conditions of ownership of land and machinery, work discipline and
labor organization, and the forging of new power relations in
southern European society"-that conditioned the technical features of
mechanized oil production in Mediterranean Europe.
Teaching machines -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Education -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Rather than dismiss the case of Sidney Pressey and the Automatic
Teacher as just another failure in the history of educational
technology and psychology, this article makes an argument for paying
attention to the automation of the professions. Produced in the
1920s, the Automatic Teacher automated clerical and diagnostic skills
and redefined productivity in terms of individualization. While
standardizing education with teaching machines and tests, Pressey
claimed to liberate teachers from burdens of drilling and testing and
students from conformity in mass education. He nonetheless found out
the hard way that his project of individualizing the masses was more
easily automated than commercialized. The Welch Manufacturing
Company produced 250 Automatic Teachers but shelved the project after
selling only about 160.
Pharmaceutical industry -- Government policy -- India -- History -- 20th century.
Technology transfer -- Government policy -- India -- History -- 20th century.
The paper examines the rationale behind the Government of India's
decision to initiate the manufacture of penicillin through
collaboration with specialized agencies of the United Nations.
Initially the expectation had been that collaboration was essential
with one of the prominent transnational companies which had
proprietory knowledge in penicillin manufacture. This preference for
aligning with a proven manufacturer rather than taking the more
entrepreneurial route of depending on the United Nations was favoured
by the Committee established to oversee the penicillin project which
was chaired by a prominent industrialist. Prime Minister Nehru's
intervention tilted the balance in favour of the United Nation's
agencies. Nehru's choice in the matter was based on the advantages to
India which would accrue from association with the United Nations, in
addition to his reluctance to allow India to enter into a subordinate
position through collaboration with a foreign manufacturer in as
sensitive an area as pharmaceuticals.