Technology and Culture

Technology and Culture
Volume 45, Number 1, January 2004

CONTENTS

Articles

    Yeang, Chen-Pang.
  • Scientific Fact or Engineering Specification? The U.S. Navy's Experiments on Long-Range Wireless Telegraphy Circa 1910
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    Subject Headings:
    • Telegraph, Wireless -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Naval research -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Austin, Louis W. (Louis Winslow), b. 1867.
    • Radio wave propagation -- History.
    Abstract:
      In 1910 and 1913, the U.S. Naval Wireless Telegraphic Laboratory led by Louis Winslow Austin conducted a series of trans-Atlantic tests for the high-power spark-gap and electric-arc dischargers of the navy's Arlington wireless station. The experimental data that were supposed to verify the equipment's engineering specifications led to a scientific fact. Austin and his colleague Louis Cohen synthesized an empirical formula from the data-the "Austin-Cohen formula-that would be an important phenomenological law for the science of radio-wave propagation. The Austin-Cohen formula was transformed from an engineering rule for specific devices into a general fact of nature through the active mediation of the scientifically trained naval experimenters, and such a transformation succeeded because the formula became a crucial empirical reference for the theoretical debate between the surface diffraction hypothesis and the atmospheric reflection hypothesis.
    Barnett, Gabrielle.
  • Drive-By Viewing: Visual Consciousness and Forest Preservation in the Automobile Age
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    Subject Headings:
    • Automobile travel -- California, Northern -- History -- 20th century.
    • Coast redwood -- Preservation -- California, Northern -- History -- 20th century.
    • Save-the-Redwoods League.
    • United States Highway 101.
    Abstract:
      Redwood preservationists' mid-twentieth century shift from promoting to opposing highway improvements in Humboldt County, California, reveals the complexity of the technology- nature relationship. In the 1920s Save-the Redwoods League and California voters embraced Redwood Highway. The road's sublime, nostalgic aesthetic appealed to auto-tourists, functioning as wish image. It helped organize the vast, impenetrable Redwood landscape: old-growth rainforest groves now lined highway. In the 1950s Highway 101 upgrades, designed for logging trucks and fast cars, changed tourists' scenic experience. Redwood Parks Freeway distanced and dwarfed the redwoods. Seasoned redwood advocate Newton Drury, as well as newcomers like the Sierra Club, agitated against new road-construction within Redwood State Parks. Three studies of material culture-- Wolfgang Schivelbusch on railroads and visual consciousness; David Nye on the technological sublime; and Walter Benjamin on commodity fetishism-- shed light on preservationists' initial enthusiasm for combining Redwoods and automobiles, and failure to anticipate the ensuing conflict.
    Jackson, R. E. (Richard E.)
  • Recognizing Emerging Environmental Problems: The Case of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater
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    Subject Headings:
    • Solvents -- Environmental aspects -- United States.
    • Groundwater -- Pollution -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Novel technologies often introduce new chemicals for which the human toxicity and environmental effects may be unknown to the industry responsible and unsuspected by public health agencies. In this context, I discuss the introduction of vapor-degreasing by manufacturing industries in the 1930s and the use of chlorinated solvents for degreasing metal parts prior to assembly of automobiles, aircraft, etc. The release of such chemicals to the subsurface and the subsequent contamination of groundwaters were not appreciated until the late 1970s when their widespread presence was finally recognized. The lack of a technical paradigm explaining the processes of contamination and the potential adverse health effects prevented the anticipation of this problem. Furthermore, it identifies the need for use-inspired basic research, such as that which identified the process of stratospheric ozone depletion, so that such environmental problems may be anticipated and public policy developed to mitigate the effects.
    Heide, Lars.
  • Monitoring People: Dynamics and Hazards of Record Management in France, 1935-1944
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    Subject Headings:
    • Punched card systems -- Political aspects -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    • Carmille, René, 1886-1945.
    • France. Armée -- History -- 20th century.
    • France -- Registers -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Monitoring people by use of punched cards was a tool for governments to exploit the potentials of modern mass society, which they started to develop in the 1930s. In France, René Carmille promoted this possibility. He worked to mechanise the army's conscript and mobilisation administration, which was only implemented by the autocratic French regime after the country had been conquered by Germany in 1940. For this end a national register of people was established by use of punched cards. However, this register also improved the possibilities to control and locate individuals, for example Jews, which Carmille only gradually realised. This predicament added to Carmille's dilemma between his loyalty to the French government and his detestation of the German Nazis. After the German occupation of the last part of France in late 1942, he rebelled against the French collaborative regime, was arrested by the Germans and died in a concentration camp.

Research Note

    Bachrach, David Steward, 1971-
  • Crossbows for the King: The Crossbow during the Reigns of John and Henry III of England
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crossbows -- Great Britain -- History -- John, 1199-1216.
    • Crossbows -- Great Britain -- History -- Henry III, 1216-1272.
    • Great Britain -- History, Military -- 1066-1485.
    Abstract:
      Although the crossbow served as the primary hand-held missile weapon in the armies of England during the thirteenth century, very little is known currently about the types and designs that were available for use. This study sheds light on three important questions relating to the construction and use of crossbows during the reigns of King John (1199-1216) and Henry III (1216 1272). First, an effort is made to identify the variety of materials employed in the construction of crossbows. Second, this study examines the means by which these weapons were spanned. Finally, this study suggests the relative frequency with which the several types of crossbows used by English troops were deployed by the royal government. -- Technology and Culture http://shot.jhu.edu/tc.html

On The Cover

Organizational Notes

Exhibit Review

    Vogel, Robert M.
  • Up, Down, Across: Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Sidewalks At the National Building Museum, Washington, D.C.
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    Subject Headings:
    • National Building Museum (U.S.) Up, down, across: elevators, escalators, and moving sidewalks [exhibition]
    • Elevators -- Exhibitions.

Essay Reviews

    Larson, John Lauritz, 1950-
  • Demythologizing Innovation: Steven Usselman, Regulating Railroad Innovation
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    Subject Headings:
    • Usselman, Steven W. Regulating railroad innovation: business, technology, and politics in America, 1840-1920.
    • Railroads -- United States -- History.
    Downey, Gregory John.
  • Nodes, Links, and Phase Transitions: Popularizing "Network Science"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barabási, Albert-László. Linked: the new science of networks.
    • Buchanan, Mark. Nexus: small worlds and the groundbreaking science of networks.
    • Watts, Duncan J., 1971- Six degrees: the science of a connected age.
    • System theory.
    • Causality (Physics)

Book Reviews

    Walton, Steve A.
  • Ars Belli: Deutsche taktische und kriegstechnische Bilderhandschriften und Traktate im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Leng, Rainer. Ars belli: deutsche taktische und kriegstechnische Bilderhandschriften und Traktate im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert.
    • Military art and science -- Early works to 1800.
    Leitão, Henrique de Sousa.
  • Francis Bacon e a fundamentação da ciência como tecnologia (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Oliveira, Bernardo Jefferson de. Francis Bacon e a fundamentação da ciência como tecnologia.
    • Bacon, Francis, 1561-1626.
    Long, Pamela O.
  • The Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, His Friends, and the Beginnings of Modern Natural History (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Freedberg, David. Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, his friends, and the beginnings of modern natural history.
    • Accademia nazionale dei Lincei -- History.
    Bray, Francesca.
  • Situating the History of Science: Dialogues with Joseph Needham (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Habib, S. Irfan, ed. Situating the history of science: dialogues with Joseph Needham.
    • Raina, Dhruv, ed.
    • Science -- Historiography -- Congresses.
    Bektas, Yakup.
  • Mapping Early Modern Japan: Space, Place, and Culture in the Tokugawa Period, 1603-1868 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Yonemoto, Marcia, 1964- Mapping early modern Japan: space, place, and culture in the Tokugawa period, 1603-1868.
    • Japan -- Civilization -- 1600-1868.
    Macnaughtan, Helen.
  • The Silk Weavers of Kyoto: Family and Work in a Changing Traditional Industry (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hareven, Tamara K. Silk weavers of Kyoto: family and work in a changing traditional industry.
    • Weavers -- Japan -- Kyoto.
    Satya, Laxman D.
  • Western Medicine and Public Health in Colonial Bombay, 1845-1895 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ramanna, Mridula. Western medicine and public health in colonial Bombay, 1845-1895.
    • Medicine -- India -- Bombay -- History -- 19th century.
    Greuther, Marc.
  • Stationary Steam Engines of Great Britain: The National Photographic Collection (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Watkins, George. Stationary steam engines of Great Britain: the national photographic collection.
    • Steam-engines -- Great Britain -- History.
    Cookson, Gillian.
  • Brunel: The Life and Times of Isambard Kingdom Brunel (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Buchanan, R. A. (Robert Angus), 1930- Brunel: the life and times of Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
    • Brunel, Isambard Kingdom, 1806-1859.
    Raber, Michael Scott.
  • Rum and Axes: The Rise of a Connecticut Merchant Family, 1795-1850 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Siskind, Janet. Rum and axes: the rise of a Connecticut merchant family, 1795-1850.
    • Connecticut -- Commerce -- History.
    Blaszczyk, Regina Lee.
  • The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ulrich, Laurel. Age of homespun: objects and stories in the creation of an American myth.
    • New England -- History -- 1775-1865.
    McBride, William M.
  • Civil War Ironclads: The U.S. Navy and Industrial Mobilization (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Roberts, William H., 1950- Civil War ironclads: the U.S. Navy and industrial mobilization.
    • Armored vessels -- United States -- History -- 19th century.
    Cox, Dwayne, 1950-
  • The Conquest of Labor: Daniel Pratt and Southern Industrialization (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Evans, Curtis J. Conquest of labor: Daniel Pratt and southern industrialization.
    • Pratt, Daniel, 1799-1873.
    Black, Brian, 1966-
  • Giant Under the Hill: A History of the Spindletop Oil Discovery at Beaumont, Texas, in 1901 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Linsley, Judith Walker. Giant under the hill: a history of the Spindletop oil discovery at Beaumont, Texas, in 1901.
    • Rienstra, Ellen Walker.
    • Stiles, Jo Ann.
    • Petroleum industry and trade -- Texas -- Beaumont -- History -- 20th century.
    Dicke, Thomas S.
  • Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Farber, David R. Sloan rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the triumph of General Motors.
    • Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard), 1875-1966.
    Ward, James Arthur, 1941-
  • Riding the Roller Coaster: A History of the Chrysler Corporation (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hyde, Charles K., 1945- Riding the roller coaster: a history of the Chrysler Corporation.
    • Chrysler Corporation.
    Mom, Gijs, 1949-
  • Die holprige Siegeszug des Automobils, 1895-1930, and: Geschichte des Autos (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Merki, Christoph Maria, 1960- Holprige Siegeszug des Automobils, 1895-1930.
    • Möser, Kurt. Geschichte des Autos.
    • Automobiles -- Europe -- History.
    Zeller, Thomas.
  • Agrarmodernisierung und ökologische Folgen: Westfalen vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ditt, Karl, ed. Agrarmodernisierung und ökologische Folgen: Westfalen vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert.
    • Gudermann, Rita, ed.
    • Rüsse, Norwich, ed.
    • Agriculture -- Environmental aspects -- Germany -- Westphalia -- History.
    Mierzejewski, Alfred C.
  • The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave Labor, and the Concentration Camps (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Allen, Michael Thad. Business of genocide: the SS, slave labor, and the concentration camps.
    • Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei. SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt -- History.
    Josephson, Paul R.
  • The Final Frontier: Science, America, and Terror (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jenkins, Dominick. Final frontier: science, America, and terror.
    • United States -- Military policy.
    Wang, Jessica.
  • Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chernus, Ira, 1946- Eisenhower's atoms for peace.
    • Nuclear energy -- Government policy -- United States -- History -- Sources.
    Day, Dwayne A.
  • Secret Empire: Eisenhower, the CIA, and the Hidden Story of America's Space Espionage (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Taubman, Philip. Secret empire: Eisenhower, the CIA, and the hidden story of America's space espionage.
    • Aerial reconnaissance, American -- History -- 20th century.
    Siddiqi, Asif A., 1966-
  • Science for the Masses: The Bolshevik State, Public Science, and the Popular Imagination in Soviet Russia, 1917-1934 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Andrews, James T., 1961- Science for the masses: the Bolshevik state, public science, and the popular imagination in Soviet Russia, 1917-1934.
    • Science and state -- Soviet Union -- History -- 20th century.
    Bowker, Geoffrey C.
  • From Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gerovitch, Slava. From newspeak to cyberspeak: a history of Soviet cybernetics.
    • Cybernetics -- Soviet Union -- History.
    Greenberg, Joshua M.
  • Veni, Vidi, Video: The Hollywood Empire and the VCR (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wasser, Frederick. Veni, vidi, video: the Hollywood empire and the VCR.
    • Video recordings.
    Slotten, Hugh Richard.
  • Anytime, Anywhere: Entrepreneurship and the Creation of a Wireless World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Galambos, Louis. Anytime, anywhere: entrepreneurship and the creation of a wireless world.
    • Abrahamson, Eric John.
    • Wireless communication systems -- Economic aspects.
    Pfaffenberger, Bryan, 1949-
  • Global Control: Information Technology and Globalization since 1845 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McMahon, Peter, 1953- Global control: information technology and globalization since 1845.
    • Information technology -- Economic aspects.
    Shapiro, Helen.
  • High-Tech Trade Wars: U.S.-Brazilian Conflicts in the Global Economy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schoonmaker, Sara, 1956- High-tech trade wars: U.S.-Brazilian conflicts in the global economy.
    • Computer software industry -- Brazil.
    Gorman, Hugh S. (Hugh Scott), 1957-
  • Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Markowitz, Gerald E. Deceit and denial: the deadly politics of industrial pollution.
    • Rosner, David, 1947-
    • Environmental health.
    Powers, Patricia E.
  • Ethical Issues in Biotechnology (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sherlock, Richard, ed. Ethical issues in biotechnology.
    • Morrey, John D., 1952-, ed.
    • Biotechnology -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Lang, James, 1944-
  • Exploring the Tomato: Transformations of Nature, Society, and Economy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harvey, Mark. Exploring the tomato: transformations of nature, society, and economy.
    • Quilley, Stephen.
    • Beynon, Huw.
    • Economics -- Sociological aspects.
    Lowengard, Sarah.
  • From Energy to Information: Representation in Science and Technology, Art, and Literature (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Clarke, Bruce, 1950-, ed. From energy to information: representation in science and technology, art, and literature.
    • Henderson, Linda Dalrymple, 1948-, ed.
    • Technology -- History.
    Moon, Suzanne M.
  • Research in Science and Technology Studies: Knowledge and Technology Transfer (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Laet, Marianne de, ed. Research in science and technology studies: knowledge and technology transfer.
    • Technology transfer.
    Dobres, Marcia-Anne.
  • Tool-Being: Heidegger and the Metaphysics of Objects (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Harman, Graham, 1968- Tool-being: Heidegger and the metaphysics of objects.
    • Heidegger, Martin, 1889-1976 -- Contributions in concept of object.
    Wyatt, Kyle Williams.
  • Making Histories in Transport Museums (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Divall, Colin. Making histories in transport museums.
    • Scott, Andrew, 1949-
    • Transportation museums.

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