The geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology of a second-order stream in central Virginia were compared to that of an adjacent reference stream in order to determine the impact of a small, 100-yrold dam. The dam had little effect on stage hydrographs, but surface release of water resulted in temperatures 2–5°C warmer than the reference stream during spring and summer months. Stream geomorphology was not highly altered by the dam, being influenced more strongly by valley geology and topography, but riffle sediment size distributions were affected by sediment trapping in the reservoir. Macroinvertebrate populations just below the dam appeared impaired, while sites 1 km downstream and on the reference stream scored well on ecological metrics. Bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus) which likely originate in the lake were abundant in the dammed creek, whereas the reference stream was dominated by native dace (Phoxinus and Rhinichthys spp.) and creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus). Overall, the impact of the dam on the creek is only moderate and declines significantly within 1 km downstream.
Kentucky is a rural southern state with the third highest heart disease rate and one of the highest poverty rates in the country, a situation that often leads to decreased access to and utilization of healthcare facilities. We assess the relationship between patterns of healthcare facility utilization for heart-related disease and material deprivation for 2002 using data from the Kentucky Discharge Database, and explore the geographic clustering and possible overlaps among material deprivation, heart disease prevalence, healthcare facility utilization, and incidence severity. We find significant clustering of healthcare facility utilization in southeastern Kentucky that corresponds with high levels of socio-economic deprivation and high rates of heart-related disease mortality. The findings suggest the need for increased services and interventions to lower the risk and prevalence of heart disease and increased research to understand better who utilizes healthcare services and their relationships to gaps in service delivery and utilization.
Ghost-themed walking tours are increasingly popular in the United States and globally. Although walking tours are often perceived as structured with pre-determined direction and content, this study of ghost walk tours in Savannah, Georgia alludes to something strikingly different. Although the tours are not usually free-form, interviewed ghost walk tour guides speak openly about how the tour experience is often negotiated and altered by the tour participants. Places visited, the length of visit, and the stories told all vary between tour groups. Surveyed tour participants suggest, both explicitly and implicitly, that the act of walking grants them more control over the tour experience. This paper introduces ghost walk tourism as a mobile form of dark tourism; discusses the role of walking in the formation of sense of place and relates the negotiation of the tour experience between guide and participants in terms of performance.
Field methods, a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a geographic information system (GIS) were used to analyze the recovery of wetland plant communities altered by historic agricultural disturbance. Rice fields abandoned at 3, 30, 75, and 132 yr prior to fieldwork were compared to an uncultivated control site for this study. Site physical characteristics and treatments were used to postulate mechanisms that facilitate changes in wetland plant communities. Abundance and dominance data for each species were recorded. Results show that disturbed communities did not return to the referenced control community composition. Areas disturbed by past agriculture are dominated by a mixture of Zizania aquatica, Zizaniopsis miliacea, and Juncus roemerianus. Dispersal trends of woody species in disturbed areas occurred methodically from riverside embankments to the island interiors. While woody patch distributions are greatest near riverside embankments, there is also evidence of an increase in woody patch distribution dispersing into island interiors.
Despite civil rights advances, widespread suburbanization and the increased presence of racial/ethnic minorities within the middle class, most U.S. metropolitan areas remain highly segregated residentially. This research provides an analysis of residential segregation in New Orleans, Louisiana, by investigating changes in two dimensions of segregation evident among the four main racial and/or ethnic groups from 1990 to 2000. Measures of residential exposure were decomposed in order to investigate the relative impacts of metropolitan-wide compositional change and intra-urban redistributive change on segregation. During the 1990s, all non-white groups became increasingly segregated from whites and increasingly integrated with one another. Evidence suggests that whites, Hispanics and Asians exhibited some degree of "ethnic (or racial) self-selectivity" that functioned to concentrate these groups residentially, although these forces were generally overwhelmed by other redistributive and compositional changes. The evidence further suggests that the degree of isolation experienced by African-Americans were strongly impacted by the residential behavior of whites and Hispanics. African-Americans and Asians, however, did increasingly share the same neighborhoods over time.
The southern economy has long been perceived as dependent upon scores of extra-regional capital, skilled workers and technology. Economic development efforts geared to ending this dependence have found limited success. The granite processing industry of Elbert County, Georgia, however, presents a compelling, and often overlooked, example of a successful, locally owned manufacturing complex. While the Elbert County granite monument industry has shown itself to be resilient in the face of technological and economic change, recent global, national and local forces have brought this manufacturing center to a point of crises. This paper focuses on the historical evolution of this production complex, the role of localization economies in monument manufacturing, and the current threats to the industry driven by the arrival of global competition and cultural change.
In an increasingly geographically and economically interdependent urban system, the coherence and dominance of traditional political and economic urban elites in Nashville is challenged. The influx of new capital, new industries, and nationwide neoliberal policies offers changing imperatives of how local capital should be organized to maximize its efficiency. This study indicates that Nashville has shifted from a political system characterized by the dominance of a closed, exclusive power group to broader, inclusive (although still elite dominated) institutions that stress greater concern for strategic planning and long-term growth. In an era of governance rescaling, cities have to adapt their governance institutions to fit the neoliberal paradigm.
A quarter century ago we surveyed Florida residents in an attempt to locate vernacular regions. Since that time place scholarship and survey methods have changed, and so has the state. This study uses a telephone survey to gauge citizen perceptions of regions. In addition, we use web imagery for representation of the results. This representational mode is chosen in response to the need for an understanding of place that is dynamic, contested and multi-faceted. Our cartographic representation of survey results is intended to give a visual impression of the fibrous nature of perception among Floridians.
As a longtime member of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Senator Robert C. Byrd has earned a reputation for successfully procuring supplemental federal spending for West Virginia. Indeed, Byrd has become nearly synonymous with 'pork barrel' spending in both the national and West Virginia press. This article attempts to elucidate the connections between pork spending, honorary place names, and political stature by focusing on Senator Byrd's efforts since 1989. After describing illustrative spending projects related to transportation and higher education, this article suggests how these expenditures may affect economic growth, electoral results, and political stature. While the economic impact of pork in this case is debatable, it is likely that its political significance, especially the practice of naming projects after Senator Byrd, plays a more substantive role.