Volume 45, Number 1, May 2005
Gares, Paul A.
White, Stephen A.
Volumetric Analysis of Overwash Fans Resulting from Tropical Storms on North Hatteras Island, North Carolina [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Washover fans -- North Carolina -- Hatteras Island.
Hurricane Dennis, 1999.
Hurricane Floyd, 1999.
Hurricane Irene, 1999.
In 1999, Hurricanes Dennis, Floyd, and Irene affected
the North Carolina coastline. Although
none of these storms made landfall north of Cape
Hatteras, the northern Hatteras Island shoreline
suffered severe beach erosion and widespread
overwash. The volume of three overwash fans located
within a 3.75 km section of shoreline in
Rodanthe was determined by measuring depth of
deposition at selected locations on the fans. Fan
area was determined from measurements taken
from aerial photographs. The depths of deposition
on the fans ranged from 0.2-1.2m, and 30-50m3
per meter length of fan were deposited at the sites.
The volumes deposited exceed the amounts recorded
during previous storms at locations along
the U.S. East Coast. Subaerial sedimentation on
barrier islands depends on high magnitude/low
frequency events because their higher storm surge
and wave heights produce dune breaching. Overwash
is not widespread during lower magnitude
storms because the water levels are not high
enough to result in flow across the barrier. The
total volume of overwash on North Hatteras Island
was estimated from fan areas measured on aerial
photographs in conjunction with the average
depth of deposition measured on the Rodanthe
fans. The total amount of sediment deposited was
estimated to be 48 m3 per meter of fan length.
Comparing these overwash volumes to amounts
deposited by wind on the barrier island north of
Hatteras Island shows that, on an annual basis,
overwash far exceeds wind as a mechanism for
transferring sediment inland. However, an extrapolation
over a longer period to accommodate for
temporal variations reveals that the volumes of
sediment transferred by overwash and by wind are
Barrier island, overwash, hurricane
Soulé, Peter T.
A Comparison of 30-yr Climatic Temperature Normals for the Southeastern United States [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Climatic normals -- Southern States -- History.
Temperature -- History.
Climatic changes -- Southern States -- History.
Thirty-year climatic normals are an integral part
of climate and climate assessment, but they are
typically not used to address issues of climatic
change. For 104 stations within the southeastern
United States, I analyze spatial parameters of
the two most recent 30-yr temperature normals
(1961-1990, 1971-2000) to illustrate the utility
of 30-yr normals for an assessment of climatic
change. My comparison of the two normal periods
shows that the Southeast as a whole has experienced
a small (0.10°C) but significant increase
in average temperature. However, of the seven
physiographic provinces examined, only the lower
Coastal Plain has experienced a significant increase
in temperature. My analysis of urban
versus rural sites produced mixed results on the
potential impacts of urbanization and the associated
heat island effects on the observed changes
in temperature. While some long-term analyses of
the thermal climate of the Southeast have shown
the region to be cooling, my results suggest that
the thermal climate of the southeastern United
States since 1961 is stable or slightly warming.
Successful wetland mitigation is determined by
goals and performance standards of a U.S. Army
Corp of Engineers approved mitigation plan. This
study collected and reviewed historical data for a
mitigation site prior to construction to reduce the
cost and risk of mitigation failure. Historical records
were reviewed to evaluate the hydrology, vegetation,
and soils of a drained Carolina bay wetland. Historical
data were obtained from courthouse records,
aerial photographs, personal interviews, the local
Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the
National Railroad Historical Society. Photographs
and interviews indicated there was open water before
drainage, suggesting a potential source of consistent
hydrology. Organic soils subside when influenced
by land clearance, drainage, and agricultural
activities and could result in a water table above the
soil surface once hydrology is restored. Aerial photographs
show that several drainage systems have
existed over the last 90 yr. Soils along the lines of the
earlier drainage ditches and a former railroad line
still show disturbance to depths of 1 m. These areas
of disturbance could affect vegetation establishment.
Records of agricultural practices suggest
higher nutrient levels than those of undisturbed
Carolina bays, indicating that undesired vegetation
could compete with desired vegetation. Historical
information verified that Juniper Bay is a viable
restoration site and identified areas where design
change could help improve chances for success. Similar
historical reviews with other mitigation sites
can help reduce cost and risk through evaluation of
hydrology, soils, and vegetation.
Regional Geographies of the U.S. Southeast and Sub-Saharan Africa: The Potential for Comparative Insights [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Geography -- Southern States -- Methodology.
Geography -- Africa, Sub-Saharan -- Methodology.
This article outlines how the study of Sub-Saharan
African regional geography has the potential to
inform scholarship on the U.S. Southeast and vice
versa. The author describes two approaches to
comparative regional analysis and then provides
an example of how each form of analysis may lead
to interesting and productive intellectual crossfertilization.
The first case is one of Africanist geographical
scholarship informing southeastern
U.S. studies that emphasizes actual historical linkages
between the two regions. The second case is an
example of how southeastern U.S. scholarship
could potentially inform research in South Africa
because of similar circumstances that the two regions
hold in common. The article concludes by
commenting on the two forms of comparative regional
Atlantic world, land reform,
regional geography, southern Africa, U.S.
Making the Legal Visible: Wilhelmina Griffin Jones' Experience of Living in Alabama During Segregation [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
African American women -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Alabama -- Tuskegee -- History -- 20th century.
Segregation -- Alabama -- Tuskegee.
Tuskegee (Ala.) -- Race relations -- History -- 20th century.
Using Delaney's conception of the legalized landscape,
this paper seeks to understand the intersection
of race and power in the everyday experiences
of an African-American woman. Using
Delaney's theory to understand the Jim Crow-era
experiences of Wilhelmina Griffin Jones and her
interaction with a white police officer offers
clues about how the visible, legalized landscape
and the metaphysical, conceptualized legalized
landscape are manifest in the everyday realm.
Furthermore, by asserting the importance of the
everyday experiences of African Americans and
whites during segregation, this paper comes to a
more nuanced understanding of the ways in
which resistance and power became enacted
through these interactions.
The collard plant has flourished as an important
garden food crop in the U.S. South since the early
nineteenth century because it is able to endure hot
summers and still thrive in winter, when it is harvested
and consumed as greens. The uneven geographic
pattern of collard production in North
Carolina calls into question claims that the collard
is a ubiquitous Southern food crop. It is still
the dominant winter garden crop on the North
Carolina Coastal Plain, but fewer patches are
being planted and consumption of collards is
waning, especially among young people. Commercial
collard production is increasing to satisfy the
demand of older folk.
Church buildings -- Landscape architecture -- Kentucky -- Menifee County.
Christian sects -- Kentucky -- Menifee County.
Appalachian Region, Southern -- Religious life and customs.
Christian churches form part of the American cultural
landscape, and their construction and reconstruction
is a circular process. Belief, attitude, and
intentionality (behavior) produce the churchscape,
or church landscape, an icon, which in turn
influences beliefs, attitudes, and intentionality
in the next users. The features of this icon vary
widely, but evangelical denominational churches,
mission churches, and Appalachian Mountain
churches tend to follow certain themes or styles.
In Menifee County, Kentucky, Appalachian Mountain
churches, which have been marginalized in
the study of American religion, exist in close proximity
to mainstream evangelical denominational
and mission churches, exhibiting these contrasts
within a small geographical area.
church landscapes, Appalachia,
evangelical denominational churches, missions,
Appalachian Mountain religion
"Selling Lifestyles, not Homes": Growth and Politics in Forsyth County, Georgia [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Cities and towns -- Georgia -- Forsyth County -- Growth.
Forsyth County (Ga.) -- Social conditions.
Forsyth County (Ga.) -- Economic conditions.
Housing -- Georgia -- Forsyth County.
Forsyth County, Georgia, was one of the fastest
growing counties in the nation during the 1990s.
This paper examines how it benefited from the
general Atlanta boom yet grew through differentiating
itself both from the central city and neighboring
suburban counties. The irony of rapid development
is that issues such as pollution and
heavy traffic have made Forsyth's 'go-it-alone' attitude
progressively more untenable, while the
county is now increasingly indistinguishable from
much of the rest of Atlanta. Framed within David
Harvey's notion of structured coherence, this paper
argues that Forsyth provides an excellent example
of intra-urban competition amid the uneven
development of a metropolitan region.
suburban growth, competition,
Hurt, Douglas A.
Dialed In? Geographic Expansion and Regional Identity in NASCAR's Nextel Cup Series [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
NASCAR Nextel Cup Series.
Stock car racing -- Social aspects -- Southern States.
Regionalism and sports -- Southern States.
In recent years, NASCAR (National Association
for Stock Car Auto Racing) has undertaken an
aggressive campaign of geographic expansion.
With the hopes of becoming a national sport, new
races have been held in the Chicago, Dallas-Fort
Worth, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and
Miami markets. While the traditional southeastern
United States core continues to host the
majority of races, some argue that expansion has
resulted in a re-writing of stock car history and a
decline of southern distinctiveness in the sport.
Changing NASCAR Nextel (formerly Winston)
Cup race locations, driver hometowns, and fan
club membership will be considered as part of an
attempt to assess the impact of NASCAR expansion
upon southern regional identity.