Social Politics: International Studies in Gender State and Soci

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society
Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2003



    Klein, Marian van der.
  • The Widows of the Gasworks: Gendered Path Dependency and the Early Dutch Welfare State
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    Subject Headings:
    • Public welfare -- Netherlands -- History -- 20th century.
    • Married women -- Netherlands -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
      In this article the focus is on the gender implications of the early Dutch welfare state and the status of male and female breadwinners and their dependents in social insurance and poor relief in the Netherlands around 1900. Barbara Nelson’s model of two gendered channels (workmen’s compensation acts versus mothers’ aid laws) in early U.S. social policy serves as a point of reference. The author concludes that, compared to the United States, social policy in the Netherlands did not start as extremely gendered. The assumption of Dutch second-wave feminists that the Dutch welfare state was male breadwinner–minded from the very beginning does not hold water.
    Harzig, Christiane.
  • MacNamara's DP Domestics: Immigration Policy Makers Negotiate Class, Race, and Gender in the Aftermath of World War II
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    Subject Headings:
    • Canada -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy -- History -- 20th century.
    • Alien labor -- Canada -- History -- 20th century.
    • Women immigrants -- Canada -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
      The Canadian labor market has always been in need of domestic labor. Throughout Canadian history the great demands for female help in households and on farms were never met. During the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries, the choice recruitment area for domestics was, of course, Great Britain. These women would inevitably soon participate in the nation-building project, helping, as mothers of the nation, populate the country. In the aftermath of World War II, when Canada became an important political agent in the international refugee resettlement regime, bureaucrats from the Ministry of Labour tried to kill two birds with one stone: to bring relief to displaced persons in Europe and to supply the labor market with domestics. After the supply from the DP camps ran dry, administrators from Immigration and Labour tried to tap into new sources in Europe. They reintroduced an Assisted Passage Program to make the offer to come to Canada to work as domestics more attractive. However, the women they had in mind had to meet certain standards, which, alas, neither the women in the DP camps nor the women targeted with the Assisted Passage Program were able or willing to match. How Ottawa bureaucrats and women activists in Canada on the one hand and field officers and women in war-torn Europe on the other hand negotiated their aims and interests and needs and wants—and thus reshaped Canada’s understanding of immigration—is the focus of this article.
    Morgan, Kimberly J., 1970-
    Zippel, Kathrin.
  • Paid to Care: The Origins and Effects of Care Leave Policies in Western Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • Parental leave -- Social aspects -- Europe, Western -- History -- 20th century.
    • Women -- Employment -- Europe, Western -- History -- 20th century.
    • Women -- Europe, Western -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
      A number of European countries have adopted paid child care leaves and allowances in the name of parental choice and valuing care. We examine the origins and consequences of these policies in Austria, Finland, France, Germany, and Norway. Care leave policies have been politically attractive to center-right governments seeking to fight unemployment, contain spending on child care, and appeal to parents struggling to balance work and family. Yet given the low benefits provided by these programs, choices for parents remain deeply constrained by gender and class. These policies also are likely to reinforce the traditional division of care work in the home. Temporary homemaking is being institutionalized as the norm for many women, who face potentially negative consequences for their earnings and long-term employment trajectories.
    Richardt, Nicole.
  • A Comparative Analysis of the Embryological Research Debate in Great Britain and Germany
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    Subject Headings:
    • Embryology, Human -- Research -- Law and legislation -- Great Britain.
    • Embryology, Human -- Research -- Law and legislation -- Germany.
    • Embryology, Human -- Research -- Moral and ethical aspects -- Great Britain.
    • Embryology, Human -- Research -- Moral and ethical aspects -- Germany.
      Since the late twentieth century research in human embryology, genetics, and reproduction has advanced significantly, producing new reproductive technologies to assist infertile couples in their wish to have healthy children and making the embryo available for research. This article analyzes why the British and the German governments passed diametrically opposed laws on embryological research despite fairly similar governmental white papers. The divergent policy outcome is explained through a combination of institutional and communicative “veto points” affecting the opportunity structure of opponents of research to block legislation permitting limited research on the human embryo.
    Ortiz-Ortega, Adriana.
    Helzner, Judith F.
  • Opening Windows to Gender: A Case Study in a Major International Population Agency
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    Subject Headings:
    • International Planned Parenthood Federation. Western Hemisphere Region.
    • Birth control -- Latin America.
    • Women -- Health and hygiene -- Latin America.
    • Birth control -- Caribbean Area.
    • Women -- Health and hygiene -- Caribbean Area.
      This article presents the experience of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, as an example of the social transformation of the family planning paradigm into model interventions in sexual and reproductive health. This is framed within the literature on gender and bureaucracies to assess the strategies and limitations followed when gender perspectives are institutionalized.

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