Social Forces

Social Forces
Volume 82, Number 1, September 2003


Articles

    Orrange, Robert M.
  • The Emerging Mutable Self: Gender Dynamics and Creative Adaptations in Defining Work, Family, and the Future
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    Subject Headings:
    • College students -- United States -- Attitudes.
    • Work and family -- United States.
    • Self-perception -- United States.
    Abstract:
      This analytical article develops a framework to examine how contemporary young adults approach work, family, and their own personal futures, by building upon a program of research involving in-depth interviews with advanced law and MBA students. I argue that the sociology of work and family could be greatly enhanced by taking account of the shifting nature of the self in light of transformations over recent decades associated with the new individualism, changes in gender roles and family life, and the demise of stable career trajectories for professionals and managers. An elaborated version of Zurcher's thesis about the mutable self is presented as a means for understanding how young adults in succeeding generations will go about defining institutional commitments across the life course.
    Simpson, Brent T.
  • Sex, Fear, and Greed: A Social Dilemma Analysis of Gender and Cooperation
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cooperativeness -- United States -- Sex differences.
    • Fear -- United States.
    • Social psychology -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Results from previous studies have led many researchers to conclude that sex has no effect on cooperation in social dilemmas. This article reconciles strong theoretical expectations of sex differences in cooperation with the dearth of empirical evidence for such differences. I show that several theories of sex- or gender-related behavior suggest we should expect males and females to respond more strongly to greed and fear, respectively, in social dilemmas. I argue that previous research has failed to find differences because researchers have consistently used the Prisoner's Dilemma game (or its public goods variants) to investigate whether sex affects cooperation. Because Prisoner's Dilemma contains both fear and greed, the theories outlined in this article predict no sex differences in cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma. A series of hypotheses about the conditions under which sex affects cooperation are proposed and tested against the results of two new studies. Results from both studies support two of the three hypotheses. I conclude by discussing some implications of the findings for collective action and inequality and by suggesting directions for future research.
    Hagan, John, 1946-
    Foster, Holly.
  • S/He's a Rebel: Toward a Sequential Stress Theory of Delinquency and Gendered Pathways to Disadvantage in Emerging Adulthood
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stress in adolescence -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Alienation (Social psychology) -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Juvenile delinquency -- United States -- Sex differences -- Longitudinal studies.
    Abstract:
      Quantitative longitudinal research neglects theoretical and qualitative work indicating that delinquency is a developmental phase embedded in a chain of emotions leading to cumulative disadvantage in the life course. Building on prior work in the sociological subfields of mental health, delinquency, and the life course, we propose and test a gendered and age-graded sequential stress theory that treats delinquency as a transitional event or set of events that can play an additive and intervening role in the movement from earlier feelings of anger through rebellious or aggressive (i.e., delinquent) forms of behavior to later depressive symptoms, and, especially, for males, drinking problems. Our results fill in transitional spaces that include a mediating role of delinquency in the cumulation of disadvantage and downward trajectories in gendered pathways to emerging adulthood.
    Paxton, Pamela Marie.
    Kunovich, Sheri.
  • Women's Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology
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    Subject Headings:
    • Political participation -- Sex differences.
    • Women legislators.
    • Sex discrimination against women.
    Abstract:
      Women's low rate of participation at the highest levels of politics is an enduring problem in gender stratification. Previous cross-national research on women in national legislatures has stressed three explanations for differences in women's political representation: social structure, politics, and ideology. Despite strong theory suggesting the importance of ideology, it has not found support in previous cross-national statistical studies. But ideology has not been as well measured as structural and political factors. In this article, we demonstrate that gender ideology strongly affects the number of women in national legislatures. We do so by introducing a newly available measure of national gender ideology into a cross-national model of women in legislatures. We demonstrate that ideology, when measured more precisely, strongly predicts differences in women's political representation.
    Moore, Laura M.
    Vanneman, Reeve, 1945-
  • Context Matters: Effects of the Proportion of Fundamentalists on Gender Attitudes
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sex role -- Religious aspects -- Christianity.
    • Women in fundamentalist churches -- United States.
    • Protestantism -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Previous research has shown that fundamentalist religious beliefs and affiliations are associated with conservative gender attitudes. This study expands upon previous research by examining both the individual and contextual effects of conservative Protestantism on gender attitudes. Multilevel analysis of data from the General Social Surveys (1985-96) reveals a significant relationship between the proportion of fundamentalists in a state and conservative gender attitudes of white individuals within that state even after controlling for the individuals' own religious affiliation, beliefs, and practices.
    Gershuny, Jonathan.
  • Web Use and Net Nerds: A Neofunctionalist Analysis of the Impact of Information Technology in the Home
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    Subject Headings:
    • World Wide Web -- Social aspects -- Great Britain.
    • Information technology -- Social aspects -- Great Britain.
    • Microcomputers -- Social aspects -- Great Britain.
    • Time management surveys -- Great Britain.
    Abstract:
      This article investigates the impact of use of the Worldwide Web on patterns of sociability. Its sets out a neofunctionalist model of socio-technological innovation that is designed to explore prospectively the impact of innovations in areas such as information and communications technology, on the full range of sociable and nonsociable activities. It uses evidence from a unique data set (a nationally representative time diary panel study, collected in the U.K. for the period 1999-2001) to explore this model. It concludes that Internet use, contrary to "time-displacement" expectations, is not negatively associated with sociability.
    Bruggeman, Jeroen.
    Visser, Hendrik Jan.
    Rossum, W. van.
  • Rounded Rationality at Large: Technological Standards in Airwaves Auctions
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cellular telephone services industry -- United States.
    • Letting of contracts -- United States.
    Abstract:
      In industries characterized by several technological standards, each with positive network externalities, competition is different from industries with technologically "loosely coupled" organizations. We therefore expected that in airwaves auctions for mobile telephony in the U.S., network externalities would show up in firms' bidding. They did, although most firms were penny-wise but pound-foolish.
    Keister, Lisa A., 1968-
  • Religion and Wealth: The Role of Religious Affiliation and Participation in Early Adult Asset Accumulation
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wealth -- Religious aspects.
    • Inheritance and succession -- United States.
    • Intergenerational relations -- Economic aspects -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Researchers have documented extreme inequalities in wealth ownership, but the processes that create these inequalities are not well understood. One important contributing factor that attracts little attention is religion. This study explores the relationship between religious participation, religious affiliation, and patterns of wealth accumulation. I argue that religion affects wealth ownership indirectly by shaping demographic behaviors. I also argue that religion directly influences wealth accumulation by identifying valuable goals, by providing a set of competencies that direct strategies of action, and by contributing to social contacts that provide information and opportunities that can enhance wealth ownership. The findings suggest that Jews enjoy tremendous gains in wealth ownership, while conservative Protestants accumulate relatively little wealth. In contrast, mainline Protestants and Catholics are indistinguishable from each other and from the general population. The results demonstrate the importance of family processes in shaping wealth accumulation, and they underscore the importance of culture in shaping economic behavior and ultimately in creating social inequality.
    Cunningham, David.
  • The Patterning of Repression: FBI Counterintelligence and the New Left
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    Subject Headings:
    • Political persecution -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation -- History -- 20th century.
    • Intelligence service -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • New Left -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      While the social movement literature recognizes the interactive nature of collective action, models almost uniformly focus on protestors themselves. Consequently, we know a great deal about how social movement organizations recruit participants, mobilize resources, and initiate activity, but have considerably less understanding of how authorities allocate repression in response to (and sometimes in anticipation of) protest events. Here, I use memos from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) counterintelligence program (COINTELPRO) against the New Left between 1968 and 1971 to understand the patterning of repression against protest groups. COINTELPRO is a unique data source; the program was autonomous from other government agencies and was organized solely to covertly "expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize" the activities of FBI targets. The level of tangible threat proxied by New Left groups' size, level of activity, or propensity for violence did not directly structure FBI activity. Instead, these target group characteristics were mediated by organizational processes endogenous to the FBI itself. Specifically, central actors in the FBI allocated organizational controls that ensured that visible (i.e., nonlocal) targets were repressed independent of the targets' local activities.
    Gerber, Theodore P.
  • Loosening Links? School-to-Work Transitions and Institutional Change in Russia since 1970
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    Subject Headings:
    • School-to-work transition -- Social aspects -- Russia (Federation) -- History -- 20th century.
    • Social stratification -- Russia (Federation) -- History -- 20th century.
    • Occupational mobility -- Russia (Federation) -- History -- 20th century.
    • Education and state -- Russia (Federation) -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      The article analyzes variation in the association between education and first occupational class (the "EC association") among Russians from four consecutive labor force entry cohorts spanning 1970-2000 and by sex. Cross-national comparative research suggests that national institutions affect the magnitude of the EC association. However, loglinear models provide no support for the view that the institutional changes associated with the demise of the Soviet system influenced the pattern or magnitude of the EC association in Russia. The only changes in the EC association predated the major institutional changes. The findings confirm research showing continuity in other aspects of stratification in post-Soviet Russia despite rapid institutional changes connected with market transition. Although there are several alternative explanations for the lack of change in the EC association, the null results suggest that the relationship between institutional arrangements and patterns of stratification is not as straightforward as cross-sectional analyses might suggest. Structural forces and policies also shape patterns of stratification, both independently of and in conjunction with institutions.
    Attewell, Paul A., 1949-
    Suazo-Garcia, Belkis.
    Battle, Juan (Juan Jose)
  • Computers and Young Children: Social Benefit or Social Problem?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Computers and children -- Social aspects -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Using time-diary data from a national sample of young school-age children, we examine the correlates of time spent at home on computing for cognitive and other measures of well-being. We observe modest benefits associated with home computing on three tests of cognitive skill, and on a measure of self-esteem. Most young children who spend time at home on computer-based activities spend no less time on activities such as reading, sports or outside play than children without home computers. However, young children who use home computers a lot, for over 8 hours a week, spend much less time on sports and outdoor activities than non-computer-users. They also have substantially heavier body mass index than children who do not use home computers.
    Paternoster, Raymond.
    Bushway, Shawn.
    Brame, Robert.
    Apel, Robert.
  • The Effect of Teenage Employment on Delinquency and Problem Behaviors
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    Subject Headings:
    • Youth -- Employment -- Social aspects -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Juvenile delinquency -- Social aspects -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Adolescent psychology -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    Abstract:
      What happens to high school youths when they take on jobs during the school year, sometimes working long hours, while trying to maintain the role of student? There is a consensus in the empirical literature that teenage employment, particularly what is termed "intensive" employment, results in a constellation of detrimental consequences: lower school grades, diminished educational ambitions, and emotional alienation from parents. There is even more consensus that work and intensive work puts youths at great risk of committing delinquent acts and other problem behaviors such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and using marijuana and other drugs. In our view, the conclusion that either work or intensive work has a harmful net effect on youths is based on a thin empirical base. The problem is that previous empirical work has not adequately addressed the issue of possible selection effects. In this article, we reexamine the relationship between intensive employment and delinquency and problem behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We conduct two general types of analysis. First, we conduct what we term a traditional analysis wherein we employ observed covariates to capture the selection process. Here we find the same positive relationship between intensive employment and antisocial behavior that others before us have. Second, we conduct both a random and a fixed-effect analysis where we adjust for both observed and unobserved sources of population heterogeneity. In this second analysis, we find that the positive association between work and antisocial behavior observed in the traditional analysis disappears. We discuss the implications of these results both for analyses of the relationship between work and crime in general and for criminological theory.
    Wolfinger, Nicholas H.
  • Parental Divorce and Offspring Marriage: Early or Late?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Children of divorced parents -- United States -- Psychology.
    • Marriage age -- Social aspects -- United States.
    Abstract:
      At least 25 separate studies have examined the impact of family structure on offspring marriage timing. Some find that parental divorce makes marriage more likely, while others show that it delays or deters marriage. This research analyzes data from the 1973-94 NORC General Social Survey with the intention of shedding light on the debate. The extraordinarily varying results of prior studies can probably be attributed to change across two dimensions of time, individual life course and historical period. In 1973 parental divorce greatly increased the chances of marriage but by 1994 people from divorced families were slightly less likely to marry than were people from intact families. Furthermore, parental divorce raises the likelihood of teenage marriage, but if the children of divorce remain single past age 20 they are disproportionately likely to avoid wedlock.
    Haynie, Dana L.
  • Contexts of Risk? Explaining the Link between Girls' Pubertal Development and Their Delinquency Involvement
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    Subject Headings:
    • Puberty -- Social aspects -- United States.
    • Interpersonal relations in adolescence -- United States.
    • Juvenile delinquency -- United States.
    • Teenage girls -- United States -- Psychology.
    Abstract:
      Although early and more advanced pubertal development has been linked to adolescent girls' delinquency involvement, the social factors that mediate these relationships have not been established. This study incorporates parent and peer relationship measures from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine (1) whether parents treat more physically developed daughters differently than their less developed peers, and (2) whether more developed girls are located in friendship networks that are more conducive to delinquency than the networks of less developed girls. Earlier pubertal development and more advanced development are associated with three types of delinquency: "party" deviance, minor delinquency, and serious delinquency. The strength of the association is strongest for "party" deviance (e.g., drinking, smoking, truancy, disorderly conduct). Conflict with parents, trust and autonomy from parents, exposure to peer deviance, and involvement in romantic relationships mediate the puberty-delinquency association. However, the relative importance of each of these mechanisms varies by the context of delinquency and the indicators of pubertal development that are used.

Book Reviews

    Morrison, Ken (Kenneth L.)
  • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Durkheim, Emile, 1858-1917. Elementary forms of religious life.
    • Fields, Karen E. (Karen Elise), 1945-, tr.
    • Durkheim, Emile, 1858-1917. Elementary forms of religious life.
    • Cosman, Carol, tr.
    • Religion.
    Gibson, David.
  • Face to Face: Toward a Sociological Theory of Interpersonal Behavior (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Turner, Jonathan H. Face to face: toward a sociological theory of interpersonal behavior.
    • Interpersonal relations.
    Levin, Peter, 1936-
  • Economic Sociology: State, Market, and Society in Modern Capitalism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Trigilia, C. (Carlo) Economic sociology: state, market, and society in modern capitalism.
    • Economics -- Sociological aspects.
    Coughlin, Brenda C.
  • The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Guillén, Mauro F., ed. New economic sociology: developments in an emerging field.
    • Economics -- Sociological aspects.
    Beckfield, Jason.
  • Transformation of the Welfare State: The Silent Surrender of Public Responsibility (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gilbert, Neil, 1940- Transformation of the welfare state: the silent surrender of public responsibility.
    • Welfare state.
    Mortimer, Jeylan T., 1943-
  • Becoming Adult: How Teenagers Prepare for the World of Work (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Becoming adult: how teenagers prepare for the world of work.
    • Schneider, Barbara L.
    • Teenagers -- Vocational guidance -- United States.
    North, Scott.
  • The Package Deal: Marriage, Work, and Fatherhood in Men's Lives (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Townsend, Nicholas W., 1951- Package deal: marriage, work, and fatherhood in men's lives.
    • Men -- United States.
    Wood, James L., 1941-
  • Methods of Social Movement Research (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Klandermans, Bert, ed. Methods of social movement research.
    • Staggenborg, Suzanne, ed.
    • Social movements.
    Klatch, Rebecca E.
  • Freedom Is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Polletta, Francesca. Freedom is an endless meeting: democracy in American social movements.
    • Social movements -- United States.
    Gordy, Eric D., 1966-
  • Framing Democracy: Civil Society and Civic Movements in Eastern Europe (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Glenn, John K. Framing democracy: civil society and civic movements in Eastern Europe.
    • Democratization -- Europe, Eastern.
    Fodor, Eva, 1964-
  • Inventing the Needy: Gender and the Politics of Welfare in Hungary (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Haney, Lynne A. (Lynne Allison), 1967- Inventing the needy: gender and the politics of welfare in Hungary.
    • Public welfare -- Hungary -- History.
    Liber, George.
  • Cultural Formations of Post-Communism: Emancipation, Transition, Nation, and War (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kennedy, Michael D. Cultural formations of post-communism: emancipation, transition, nation, and war.
    • Political culture -- Europe, Eastern.
    Galtz, Naomi Roslyn.
  • Looking West?: Cultural Globalization and Russian Youth Cultures (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Pilkington, Hilary, 1964- Looking West?: cultural globalization and Russian youth cultures.
    • Youth -- Russia (Federation) -- Attitudes.
    Granberg, Ellen.
  • Women and Dieting Culture: Inside a Commercial Weight Loss Group (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stinson, Kandi M. Women and dieting culture: inside a commercial weight loss group.
    • Weight loss -- Social aspects.
    Perrin, Andrew J., 1971-
  • Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Zerubavel, Eviatar. Time maps: collective memory and the social shape of the past.
    • Time.
    Fong, Eric.
  • American Diversity: A Demographic Challenge for the Twenty-first Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Denton, Nancy A., ed. American diversity: a demographic challenge for the twenty-first century.
    • Tolnay, Stewart Emory, ed.
    • Pluralism (Social sciences) -- Congresses.
    Golash-Boza, Tanya.
  • Who Is White?: Latinos, Asians, and the New Black/Nonblack Divide (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Yancey, George, 1962- Who is white?: Latinos, Asians, and the new black/nonblack divide.
    • United States -- Race relations.
    Harris, David R.
  • Beyond Black: Biracial Identity in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rockquemore, Kerry. Beyond Black: biracial identity in America.
    • Brunsma, David L.
    • Racially mixed people -- Race identity -- United States.
    Roy, Kevin.
  • Fatherhood Arrested: Parenting from Within the Juvenile Justice System (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nurse, Anne, 1968- Fatherhood arrested: parenting from within the juvenile justice system.
    • Juvenile delinquents -- Rehabilitation -- United States.
    Lewis, Tammy L.
  • Anatomy of a Conflict: Identity, Knowledge, and Emotion in Old-Growth Forests (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Satterfield, Terre, 1960- Anatomy of a conflict: identity, knowledge, and emotion in old-growth forests.
    • Old-growth forests -- Oregon.



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