Social Forces

Social Forces
Volume 81, Number 3, March 2003


Articles

    Hamilton, Richard F.
    Form, William Humbert, 1917-
  • Categorical Usages and Complex Realities: Race, Ethnicity, and Religion in the United States
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sociology -- United States -- Textbooks.
    • Race.
    • Ethnicity -- United States.
    • United States -- Religion.
    Abstract:
      This article compares and comments on the "two sociologies," that of the journals and monographs and that of the introductory textbooks. The principal concern is with the treatments of race, ethnicity, and religion. The principal argument is that the categorical usages found in the textbooks hide significant ongoing social changes. To address these questions we present data from the 1972-98 NORC General Social Surveys. The evidence presented does not support a range of standard claims found in the five leading textbooks. Those textbooks do not adequately reflect well-known findings reported in the discipline's specialties.
    Brady, David.
  • Rethinking the Sociological Measurement of Poverty
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    Subject Headings:
    • Poverty -- United States -- Statistical methods.
    • Economics -- United States -- Sociological aspects.
    Abstract:
      Despite serious methodological problems, quantitative studies of poverty by U.S. sociologists predominantly rely on the official U.S. measure. After reviewing the shortcomings of the U.S. measure, this article examines several theoretical and methodological advances in poverty measurement. After synthesizing literature on poverty measurement, I argue that ideal measures of poverty should: (1) measure comparative historical variation effectively; (2) be relative rather than absolute; (3) conceptualize poverty as social exclusion; (4) assess the impact of taxes, transfers, and state benefits; and (5) integrate the depth of poverty and the inequality among the poor. Next, this article evaluates sociological studies published since 1990 for their consideration of these criteria. Due to sociology's neglect of these criteria, this article advocates for three alternative poverty indices: the interval measure, the ordinal measure, and the sum of ordinals measure. Finally, using the Luxembourg Income Study, I examine the empirical patterns with these three measures, across advanced capitalist democracies from 1967 to 1997. Estimates of these poverty indices are made available for future research.
    Hoffmann, John P.
  • A Contextual Analysis of Differential Association, Social Control, and Strain Theories of Delinquency
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    Subject Headings:
    • Juvenile delinquency -- United States -- Sociological aspects.
    • Social influence.
    • Context effects (Psychology) -- United States.
    • Social control -- United States.
    Abstract:
      The history of criminological thought has seen several theories that attempt to link community conditions and individual-level processes. However, a comparative analysis of contextual effects has not been undertaken. This article estimates a multilevel model that examines the effects of variables derived from three delinquency theories. The results indicate that youths residing in areas of high male joblessness who experience stressful life events or little parental supervision are especially likely to be involved in delinquent behavior. The attenuating impact of school involvement on delinquency is more pronounced in urban environments low in male joblessness. These results suggest that examining the contextual implications of delinquency theories is important, but theories need to be developed with more attention to specific contextual processes.
    McCammon, Holly J., 1959-
  • "Out of the Parlors and into the Streets": The Changing Tactical Repertoire of the U.S. Womenís Suffrage Movements
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    Subject Headings:
    • Women -- Suffrage -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Little empirical research exists on major changes in the strategies and tactics of social movements, but some researchers argue that organizational readiness and political opportunities produce such changes. This article examines the circumstances that led some state woman suffrage movements to use a bold new tactic, the suffrage parade, beginning in the early twentieth century. An event-history analysis reveals that organizational readiness and political opportunities had little to do with change in the suffragists' strategic approach. Rather, the change occurred when movements consisted of a diverse assortment of organizations, when movement organizations were less centrally structured, when conflict existed among movement members, when movements engaged in fundraising, and when the suffragists had recently experienced significant political defeat. The model of tactical change presented here better explains the impetuses for such a shift than do earlier explanations.
    Phillips, Damon Jeremy.
    Sørensen, Jesper B.
  • Competitive Position and Promotion Rates: Commercial Television Station Top Management, 1953-1988
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    Subject Headings:
    • Television stations -- Employees -- Promotions -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Productivity bargaining -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Organizational effectiveness -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      While the scholarship on internal labor markets and promotion chances has contributed substantially to the sociology of organizations and labor markets, it has not developed a rich understanding of how career trajectories are influenced by the firm's competitive position in its product market. Our central claim is that a firm's implicit bargaining power over its employees depends on its product market position and its sensitivity to environmental change. The greater the firm's bargaining power, the less the firm will be compelled to use promotions as a device to induce productivity. Firms occupying robust competitive positions should have greater bargaining power in the labor market and be less likely to fill vacancies through internal promotions. Analyses of promotion rates among top managers in a longitudinal sample of television stations support our thesis.
    Yeung, King-To.
    Martin, John Levi.
  • The Looking Glass Self: An Empirical Test and Elaboration
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    Subject Headings:
    • Self-perception -- Testing.
    • Self-knowledge, Theory of.
    • Social acceptance.
    Abstract:
      We test the hypothesis inspired by Mead and Cooley, that one's self-perceptions are an internalization of the perceptions of the views of others, using a large set of network data from 56 naturally occurring communities. The results are compatible with an internalization model, whereby self-conceptions are instilled through interaction with high-status alters. Yet it does not seem that personality is simply an impression made in a malleable mind by the force of social interaction — examination of longitudinal data demonstrates that over time, it is possible for individuals to bring others around to their self-conceptions, presumably because they are able to build up a reputation through consistent acts.
    Cohen, Philip N.
    Huffman, Matt L.
  • Occupational Segregation and the Devaluation of Womenís Work across U.S. Labor Markets
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    Subject Headings:
    • Labor market -- United States.
    • Women -- Employment -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Previous research on the devaluation of women's work has investigated whether the net effect of gender composition varies across jobs and organizational settings. We extend that research by using hierarchical linear models that combine data from a random sample of U.S. work establishments with metropolitan-area data to explore whether macro-level gender inequality also influences the tendency to devalue women's work roles. Thus, we offer the first attempt to examine processes that lead to organizational gender inequality in local labor market contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that gender devaluation will be strongest in highly gender-segregated labor markets. One reason for this may be that in segregated markets, men are in a stronger position to benefit from devaluation while women are less able to resist it. The results strongly support this hypothesis: Higher levels of occupational segregation at the labor market level are associated with a significantly increased tendency to devalue women's work roles. This finding is not explained by a diverse set of controls at both the establishment and local labor market level. Our findings highlight an additional way that gender segregation intensifies labor market inequality.
    McLaren, Lauren M.
  • Anti-Immigrant Prejudice in Europe: Contact, Threat Perception, and Preferences for the Exclusion of Migrants
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    Subject Headings:
    • Europe, Western -- Emigration and immigration -- Public opinion.
    • Public opinion -- Europe, Western.
    • Europe, Western -- Race relations.
    Abstract:
      This article introduces the theoretical approaches of contact, group conflict, and symbolic prejudice to explain levels of exclusionary feelings toward a relatively new minority in the West European context, the immigrant. The findings indicate that even after controls for perceived threat are included in the model, intimate contact with members of minority groups in the form of friendships can reduce levels of willingness to expel legal immigrants from the country. A contextual variable, level of immigration to the country, is also introduced into the model because it is likely that this variable affects both threat perception and exclusionary feelings. While context does not seem to directly affect levels of willingness to expel or include immigrants in the society, it does have a rather powerful impact on perceived threat. Perhaps even more importantly, the findings suggest that contact mediates the effect of the environment, helping to produce lower levels of threat perception in contexts of high immigration.
    Downey, Liam.
  • Spatial Measurement, Geography, and Urban Racial Inequality
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    Subject Headings:
    • Discrimination in housing -- United States.
    • Geographic information systems -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Although many models of urban racial inequality make predictions about the geographic distribution of social groups and social goods, these predictions are rarely tested spatially. This is because (1) it can be extremely difficult to measure geographic distance using social science datasets and (2) when studying residential segregation, researchers generally measure the total extent of segregation in a region rather than the distribution of racial and ethnic groups within a region. This article overcomes these problems by introducing a geographic information system (GIS) variable construction technique that allows researchers to measure the distance between social groups and goods more precisely than is otherwise possible and by demonstrating the importance of using maps to examine the distribution of social groups and goods within metropolitan areas.
    Cornwell, Benjamin.
  • The Dynamic Properties of Social Support: Decay, Growth, and Staticity, and Their Effects on Adolescent Depression
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    Subject Headings:
    • Depression in adolescence -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Supportive psychotherapy -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Social interaction in adolescence -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.
    Abstract:
      Although social support is a static concept, its basic dynamic properties — decay, growth, and staticity — involve different underlying social processes, and therefore have differential effects on mental health. Using a sample of 11,835 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct a series of regression analyses of depression on these properties of support. As hypothesized, the positive effect of support decay on depression is stronger than the negative effect of support growth. Results imply that, for those in an adolescent's social environment, it is important to take a proactive rather than a reactive approach to managing adolescent depression. Future research should adopt a framework that treats the distribution of social resources as dynamic in nature, and that is sensitive to contrasting processes this give rise to opposite mental health outcomes.
    Vasi, Ion Bogdan.
    Macy, Michael W.
  • The Mobilizerís Dilemma: Crisis, Empowerment, and Collective Action
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    Subject Headings:
    • Conservation of natural resources -- Social aspects.
    • Social action.
    • Power (Social sciences)
    Abstract:
      Collective action can be problematic for two reasons — we may get little or no additional benefit from our own efforts should we choose to contribute (the "efficacy problem"), yet we will enjoy the benefits of others' efforts even if we fail to contribute (the "free-rider problem"). Movement mobilizers address the free-rider problem by issuing crisis messages that call attention to impending disaster and the urgent need for action. These messages discourage free riding by making clear that soon there may be no more public resources to enjoy for free. Mobilizers address the efficacy problem by issuing empowerment messages that emphasize the fact that positive change is possible and is, in fact, happening. Crisis messages are especially prominent in the "tragedy of the commons" because of the accelerating impact of overconsumption. The "mobilizer's dilemma" is that crisis messages may actually backfire by undermining belief in the ability to "make a difference," while empowerment messages affirm efficacy but encourage free riding. We tested the hypothesized effects of crisis and empowerment messages under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two separate experiments, members of a large group were confronted with a resource depletion problem under conditions of uncertainty. We manipulated the content of persuasive messages and measured the effect on self-restraint in harvesting the commons. The results confirmed the mobilizer's dilemma and pointed to a way out.
    Mattingly, Marybeth J.
    Bianchi, Suzanne M.
  • Gender Differences in the Quantity and Quality of Free Time: The U.S. Experience
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    Subject Headings:
    • Leisure -- Social aspects -- United States.
    • Sex role -- United States.
    Abstract:
      This study uses newly collected time diary data to assess gender differences in both quantity and quality of free time, including measures of contamination of free time by nonleisure activities such as household chores, the fragmentation of free time, and how frequently children's needs must be accommodated during free-time activities. Our findings suggest that men and women do experience free time very differently. Men tend to have more of it. Marriage and children exacerbate the gender gap and market work hours erode men's and women's free time in different ways. Our findings reveal that despite gains toward gender equality in other domains, discrepancies persist in the experience of free time.
    Meier, Ann M.
  • Adolescentsí Transition to First Intercourse, Religiosity, and Attitudes about Sex
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    Subject Headings:
    • Teenagers -- United States -- Attitudes.
    • Sex -- Religious aspects.
    • Interpersonal relations in adolescence -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Using two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines two sets of relationships between attitudes, religiosity, and first sex among adolescents. First, I estimate the effects of religiosity and attitudes about sex on the likelihood of engaging in first sex. Then, I estimate the effect of having sex on subsequent religiosity and attitudes. The findings are consistent with past research that finds attitudes are a significant predictor of sexual activity. The effect of religiosity on first sex is mediated by attitudes about sex. Regarding reciprocal effects, having sex for the first time has a significant effect on later attitudes, but not religiosity. This study highlights the importance of going beyond traditional, recursive models that consider only one side of a causal relationship.

Book Reviews

    Freese, Jeremy.
  • What It Means to be 98 Percent Chimpanzee: Apes, People, and Their Genes (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Marks, Jonathan (Jonathan M.), 1955- What it means to be 98 percent chimpanzee: apes, people, and their genes.
    • Human beings -- Animal nature.
    Polletta, Francesca.
  • Mobilizing Public Opinion: Black Insurgency and Racial Attitudes in the Civil Rights Era (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lee, Taeku. Mobilizing public opinion: Black insurgency and racial attitudes in the civil rights era.
    • African Americans -- Civil rights -- History -- 20th century.
    Stoll, David, 1952-
  • The Politics of the Spirit: The Political Implications of Pentecostalized Religion in Costa Rica and Guatamala (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Steigenga, Timothy J., 1965- Politics of the spirit: the political implications of Pentecostalized religion in Costa Rica and Guatamala.
    • Christianity and politics -- Costa Rica.
    Judkins, Bennett M.
  • Fighting against the Injustice of the State and Globalization: Comparing the African American and Oromo Movements (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jalata, Asafa, 1954- Fighting against the injustice of the state and globalization: comparing the African American and Oromo movements.
    • Oromo (African people) -- Government relations.
    Olick, Jeffrey K., 1964-
  • Difficult Reputations: Collective Memories of the Evil, Inept, and Controversial (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fine, Gary Alan. Difficult reputations: collective memories of the evil, inept, and controversial.
    • United States -- Historiography.
    Shanahan, Michael J.
  • Arrested Adulthood: The Changing Nature of Maturity and Identity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Côté, James E. Arrested adulthood: the changing nature of maturity and identity.
    • Adulthood.
    Conway, Dennis, 1941-
  • The Mobility of Workers under Advanced Capitalism: Dominican Migration to the United States (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hernández, Ramona. Mobility of workers under advanced capitalism: Dominican migration to the United States.
    • Alien labor, Dominican -- United States.
    Sherman, Rachel.
  • Unions in a Globalized Environment: Changing Borders, Organizational Boundaries, and Social Roles (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nissen, Bruce, 1948-, ed. Unions in a globalized environment: changing borders, organizational boundaries, and social roles.
    • Labor unions.
    Ruef, Martin.
  • Changing Organizations: Business Networks in the New Political Economy (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Knoke, David. Changing organizations: business networks in the new political economy.
    • Business networks -- United States.



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