Social Forces

Social Forces
Volume 81, Number 2, December 2002


Contents

Articles

    Burstein, Paul.
    Linton, April.
  • The Impact of Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Social Movement Organizations on Public Policy: Some Recent Evidence and Theoretical Concerns
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    Subject Headings:
    • Political parties.
    • Pressure groups.
    • Social movements.
    • Policy sciences.
    Abstract:
      This article considers the direct impact of political parties, interest groups, and social movement organizations (SMOs) on policy, providing evidence for a "core" hypothesis and three others that refine or qualify it. The core hypothesis: all three types of organizations have substantial impacts on policy. The other three: (1) when public opinion is taken into account, the political organizations do not have such an impact; (2) parties have a greater impact than interest groups and SMOs; and (3) interest groups and SMOs will affect policy only to the extent that their activities provide elected officials with information and resources relevant to their election campaigns. The source of data is articles published in major sociology and political science journals from 1990 to 2000, systematically coded to record the impact of organizations on policy. The major findings include: political organizations affect policy no more than half the time; parties and nonparty organizations affect policy about equally often; there is some evidence that organizational activities that respond to the electoral concerns of elected officials are especially likely to have an impact.
    Bandelj, Nina.
  • Embedded Economies: Social Relations as Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • Investments, Foreign -- Europe, Central.
    • Investments, Foreign -- Europe, Eastern.
    • Europe, Central -- Social conditions.
    • Europe, Eastern -- Social conditions.
    Abstract:
      Foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered a powerful catalyst in market transition. However, FDI flows vary greatly across Central and East European transition countries. I compare and contrast current approaches, which consider country characteristics as determinants of FDI, with a relational approach that emphasizes institutional, political, economic, and cultural connections between investor and host countries. Regression analyses of FDI flows in country dyads provide little evidence for the effects of country characteristics. Political, migration, trade, and cultural relations between investors and hosts have strong positive effects on FDI flows, and they add considerably to the proportion of the explained cross-national variance. These findings highlight the utility of a relational understanding of macroeconomic processes, as well as the importance of examining how substantively different social relations shape economic exchange.
    Kim, Sangmoon.
    Shin, Eui Hang.
  • A Longitudinal Analysis of Globalization and Regionalization in International Trade: A Social Network Approach
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    Subject Headings:
    • International trade -- History -- 20th century -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Globalization -- History -- 20th century -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Regionalism -- History -- 20th century -- Longitudinal studies.
    • Business networks -- History -- 20th century -- Longitudinal studies.
    Abstract:
      Although there have been heated debates over globalization and regionalization, refined empirical research has been lacking. Defining globalization and regionalization as specific types of linkages between countries, we attempt to empirically examine the following: (1) Has the world been globalized and/or regionalized? and (2) If it has, what are the consequences of these processes? To explore these questions, we analyze longitudinal data on international commodity trade using the social network approach. Data analysis shows that the world became increasingly globalized between 1959 and 1996 in the sense that each country studied traded with more countries in 1996 than in 1959. As a result, the world trade network became denser. At the core of this process has been the development of countries in the middle strata. We also find that the structure of the world trade network became decentralized over time, a change that provides greater support for neoclassical economic theory than for world-system/dependency theory. Regarding regionalization, we find that intraregional density is greater than interregional density and that intraregional ties are stronger than interregional ones. Moreover, both intraregional and interregional density increased significantly between 1959 and 1996, indicating, first, that the flow of world trade became regionalized and, second, that globalization and regionalization are not contradictory processes.
    Werum, Regina E.
  • Matching Youth and Jobs? Gender Dynamics in New Deal Job Training Programs
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    Subject Headings:
    • Federal aid to vocational education -- Southern States -- History -- 1865-1951.
    • Vocational education -- Southern States -- History -- 1865-1951.
    • Sex discrimination in education -- Southern States -- History -- 1865-1951.
    Abstract:
      State theorists have examined the gender implications of various New Deal social policies, but few researchers have analyzed federal job training programs, which formed a key component of New Deal policies. Drawing on different theories of the state I analyze whether federal policy goals matched local policy outcomes (n =337 counties) in three southern states. Federal vocational policy expanded educational opportunities during the New Deal, but it did so in a gender-specific manner fundamentally shaped by structural changes in the region's economy. Thus, results are mixed. Policy outcomes matched goals in the sense that women's access to vocational training remained narrowly constrained, despite increased funding for women's programs. Additional funds mostly benefitted men's programs. But contrary to congressional intent, access to programs remained disconnected from local labor markets. Instead, employment opportunities in the domestic sector had a profound impact on enrollment dynamics, while changes in the organization of production via mechanization and industrialization made vocational programs more male dominated than ever.
    Regoeczi, Wendy C.
  • The Impact of Density: The Importance of Nonlinearity and Selection on Flight and Fight Reponses
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    Subject Headings:
    • Population density -- Social aspects -- Mathematical models.
    • Crowding stress -- Mathematical models.
    Abstract:
      Unlike commonsense notions and the findings from animal research, the literature concerning the effects of density on human social behavior is paralyzed by contradictory findings. This article examines empirically two fundamental issues which could account for this and which are central to the density-crowding debate: (1) whether observed crowding effects are the result of causation or selection and (2) whether individuals are negatively affected by both low and high levels of density. Data from the Toronto Mental Health and Stress study are analyzed using structural equation modeling to investigate these questions. The results support the notion that the effects of density on aggressive and withdrawn behavior are nonlinear in nature. The findings further reveal a self-selection of respondents into particular forms of housing. The implications of these findings for future research on crowding are discussed.
    Gross, Neil.
    Simmons, Solon.
  • Intimacy as a Double-Edged Phenomenon? An Empirical Test of Giddens
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    Subject Headings:
    • Giddens, Anthony -- Views on interpersonal relations.
    • Interpersonal relations -- United States.
    • Globalization -- Social aspects.
    Abstract:
      In a series of books published since 1990, Anthony Giddens has explored the impact of globalization on the personal relationships and inner lives of those living in the advanced capitalist societies of the West. Of particular interest to him have been intimate, sexual relationships, which he views as tending, under the weight of globalization, away from a "traditional" model and toward a "posttraditional" form in which the relationship is seen as a means to self-development and is expected to be dissolved when it no longer serves this purpose. These posttraditional or "pure love" relationships, Giddens argues, hold great promise for human freedom and happiness, but are so unpredictable that they also threaten to overwhelm people with anxiety and lead them to engage in compensatory addictive behaviors. This article empirically examines Giddens's claims. Data come from a nationally representative survey of Americans in midlife. Results show that people in pure love relationships reap the rewards to which Giddens points, but experience few of the negative side effects. The theoretical implications of the findings are considered.
    Eitle, David.
    D'Alessio, Stewart J.
    Stolzenberg, Lisa.
  • Racial Threat and Social Control: A Test of The Political, Economic, and Threat of Black Crime Hypotheses
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    Subject Headings:
    • African Americans -- South Carolina.
    • Crime and race -- South Carolina.
    • South Carolina -- Race relations.
    • Criminal statistics -- South Carolina.
    Abstract:
      The often observed association between the size of the black population and the amount of social control imposed on blacks has been interpreted as consistent with one of three conceptually distinct perspectives: (1) the political threat hypothesis, (2) the economic threat hypothesis, and (3) the threat of black crime hypothesis. Although these three hypotheses advance differing conceptualizations of threat, adjudicating between them has proven difficult. The current study uses county-level data drawn from South Carolina's National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), race-specific voting data, and demographic data to investigate the validity of each of these racial threat hypotheses. Results from a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis show that black-on-white crime has a substantive positive effect on black arrest levels. In contrast, no such effect is observed for black-on-black crime. These findings taken together furnish strong support for the threat of black crime hypothesis. The curvilinear relationship between the ratio of black-to-white votes cast in a general election and black arrest levels hypothesized by the political threat hypothesis does not hold for the data analyzed. Additionally, we find no empirical support for the economic threat hypothesis. The implications of these findings are discussed.
    Helms, Ronald.
    Jacobs, David.
  • The Political Context of Sentencing: An Analysis of Community and Individual Determinants
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sentences (Criminal procedure) -- Political aspects -- United States -- States.
    Abstract:
      Most studies of jail or prison sentence length focus on whether offender characteristics produce sentencing differentials after legal effects have been controlled, but the findings in the literature have not been consistent, probably because most studies have been based on a few jurisdictions. To see if political effects explain these discrepancies, this study of 337 jurisdictions in seven states analyzes interaction effects between external political influences and offender attributes after holding constant multiple individual and environmental factors. To adjust for censoring, Tobit is used to analyze the length of sentences, while state differences are held constant with state-specific dummy variables. When interaction terms are not included, the results are consistent with prior research. But the inclusion of political interactions produces findings suggesting that African Americans and males receive longer sentences when local courts are embedded in conservative political environments where a law-and-order presidential candidate received more votes. These results support theoretical claims that punishment is an intensely political process.
    Stockard, Jean.
    O'Brien, Robert M.
  • Cohort Variations and Changes in Age-Specific Suicide Rates over Time: Explaining Variations in Youth Suicide
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    Subject Headings:
    • Suicide -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Age distribution (Demography) -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Youth -- Suicidal behavior -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Dramatic changes in the age distribution of suicide in the U.S. are associated with variations in the demographic characteristics of birth cohorts. Using an age-period-cohort-characteristic model, we show that cohort characteristics theoretically linked to integration and regulation have substantively strong and statistically significant relationships with changes in age-specific suicide rates from 1930 to 1995. Members of relatively large cohorts and of cohorts with higher percentages of nonmarital births are at greater risk for suicide throughout their life spans. These results appear for the total population and for race-sex subgroups, even though the age distributions of suicide differ substantially across these demographic groups. They can account for recent sharp increases in youth suicide, as well as more moderate increases in earlier decades.
    Schoen, Robert.
    Astone, Nan Marie.
    Rothert, Kendra.
    Standish, Nicola J.
    Kim, Young J.
  • Women's Employment, Marital Happiness, and Divorce
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    Subject Headings:
    • Women -- Employment -- United States.
    • Marriage -- United States.
    • Women -- United States -- Psychology.
    Abstract:
      The relationship between women's employment and the risk of divorce is both complex and controversial. The role specialization (or interdependence) view of marriage argues that the gains to marriage for both partners decrease when both are in the labor force, and hence women's employment destabilizes marriage. In contrast, the economic opportunity hypothesis asserts that female labor force participation does not intrinsically weaken marriage, but gives women resources that they can use to leave unsatisfactory marriages. Here we use data from the two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households to conduct the first large-scale empirical test of those conflicting claims. Our results provide clear evidence that, at the individual level, women's employment does not destabilize happy marriages but increases the risk of disruption in unhappy marriages.

Book Reviews

    Moody, James.
  • Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • White, Harrison C. Markets from networks: socioeconomic models of production.
    • Market segmentation -- Mathematical models.
    Sciulli, David.
  • The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of Twenty-First Century Capitalist Societies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fligstein, Neil. Architecture of markets: an economic sociology of twenty-first century capitalist societies.
    • Capitalism -- Social aspects.
    Buchmann, Claudia.
  • Beyond College for All: Career Paths for the Forgotten Half (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Rosenbaum, James E., 1943- Beyond college for all: career paths for the forgotten half.
    • School-to-work transition -- United States.
    Leicht, Kevin T.
  • The Critical Study of Work: Labor, Technology, and Global Production (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Baldoz, Rick, 1969-, ed. Critical study of work: labor, technology, and global production.
    • Koeber, Charles, 1967-, ed.
    • Kraft, Philip, 1944-, ed.
    • Working class -- History -- 20th century.
    Ghamari-Tabrizi, Behrooz.
  • States, Ideologies, and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of Iran, Nicaragua, and the Philippines (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Parsa, Misagh, 1945- States, ideologies, and social revolutions: a comparative analysis of Iran, Nicaragua, and the Philippines.
    • Revolutions -- Case studies.
    Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo, 1962-
  • More than Black?: Multiracial Identity and the New Racial Order (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Daniel, G. Reginald, 1949- More than Black?: multiracial identity and the new racial order.
    • United States -- Race relations.
    Byng, Michelle D.
  • Talking at Trena's: Everyday Conversations at an African American Tavern (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • May, Reuben A. Buford, 1965- Talking at Trena's: everyday conversations at an African American tavern.
    • African Americans -- Race identity.
    Kurien, Prema A., 1963-
  • Religion and the New Immigrants: Continuities and Adaptations in Immigrant Congregations (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ebaugh, Helen Rose Fuchs, 1942-, ed. Religion and the new immigrants: continuities and adaptations in immigrant congregations.
    • Chafetz, Janet Saltzman, ed.
    • Immigrants -- Religious life -- United States.
    Wolford, Wendy.
  • After the Revolution: Gender and Democracy in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Luciak, Ilja A. After the Revolution: gender and democracy in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala.
    • Women in politics -- Central America -- Case studies.



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