Social Forces

Social Forces 79.3, March 2001

Contents

    Bian, Yanjie, 1955-
    Shu, Xiaoling.
    Logan, John R., 1946-
  • Communist Party Membership and Regime Dynamics in China
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    Subject Headings:
    • Zhongguo gong chan dang -- Membership.
    • Patronage, Political -- China -- History -- 1949-
    • China -- Politics and government -- 1949-
    Abstract:
      This article uses event history analyses to examine how the criteria of political screening and educational credentials evolve in the attainment of Chinese Communist Party membership during the period between 1949 and 1993 and how party membership, in turn, influences individual mobility into elite political and managerial positions. We argue that political screening is a persistent feature and a survival strategy of all Communist parties and that the mechanisms of ensuring political screening are affected by the regime's agendas in different historical periods. Using data from surveys conducted in Shanghai and Tianjin in 1993, we found that measures of political screening were persistently significant predictors of party membership attainment in all post-1949 periods and that party membership is positively associated with mobility into positions of political and managerial authority during the post-1978 reform era. Education emerged to be a significant predictor of Communist party membership in the post-1978 period. These findings indicate that China has made historical shifts to recruit among the educated to create a technocratic elite that is both occupationally competent and politically screened.
    Stovel, Katherine Wellesley.
  • Local Sequential Patterns: The Structure of Lynching in the Deep South, 1882-1930
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lynching -- Southern States -- History -- 1865-1951.
    • Southern States -- Social conditions -- 1865-1945.
    • Historical sociology.
    Abstract:
      White-on-black violence was a fact of life in the Deep South during the decades straddling the turn of the century. Yet though the lynching of blacks is historically significant, it was, statistically speaking, a relatively rare event. While each lynching is associated with a complex and often gruesome narrative, particularities often overwhelm efforts to reveal anything other than broad structural determinants or proximate causes. Efforts to apply narrative methods have been limited to the analysis of a single lynching incident, and yield more insight into patterns of interaction than into the phenomena of lynching as a whole. This article offers a new analytic description of the temporal structure of local lynching histories in the Deep South between 1882 and 1930. Sequential analysis reveals robust variation in the temporal pattern of local lynching; interpretation of the finite set of patterns of lynching histories focuses on the sequential consequences of various microlevel mechanisms, and demonstrates the advantages of moving beyond the analysis of discrete incidents.
    Parcel, Toby L.
    Dufur, Mikaela J.
  • Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement
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    Subject Headings:
    • Academic achievement -- Economic aspects.
    • Family -- Economic aspects.
    • Education -- Economic aspects.
    Abstract:
      We investigate the effects of both family and school capital on student math and reading achievement. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) merged Child-Mother Data for 1992 and 1994, to which indicators of capital in the children's schools for 1993-94 and 1994-95 have recently been added. We study children who attended first through eighth grades in both 1992 and 1994, with samples of 2034 for math achievement and 2203 for reading recognition. Findings suggest that school capital effects are modest in size while family capital effects are stronger; combinations of school and family capital boost or modify additive findings. We sketch directions for future research and discuss the usefulness of analyzing school and family capital as parallel concepts.
    Short, Susan E.
    Zhai, Fengying.
    Xu, Siyuan.
    Yang, Mingliang.
  • China's One-Child Policy and the Care of Children: An Analysis Using Qualitative and Quantitative Data
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    Subject Headings:
    • Child care -- China -- Psychological aspects.
    • Birth control -- China.
    • Sex role -- China.
    Abstract:
      Gender bias in family formation in China is well documented. Much less is known about how children fare once they become part of a family. Drawing on fieldwork and survey data, we describe the care of young children, and investigate the relationship between the one-child policy and parental involvement in care. Results indicate that the one-child policy, insofar as it limits couples to one or two children, leads to greater involvement by parents in child care. Additional effects of policy vary by children's gender. Boys receive similar care regardless of the one-child policy in their communities. Girls, living in communities where couples are permitted another child if their first is a girl, are more likely to receive parental care than girls in other communities. These results suggest that gender bias in China is not solely due to outdated "feudal" ideas resulting in son preference.
    Landale, Nancy.
    Oropesa, Ralph Salvatore.
  • Father Involvement in the Lives of Mainland Puerto Rican Children: Contributions of Nonresident, Cohabitating and Married Fathers
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    Subject Headings:
    • Puerto Rican children.
    • Father and child -- Psychological aspects.
    • Father and child -- Economic aspects.
    Abstract:
      This study examines the nature and determinants of father involvement among mainland Puerto Ricans using interview data collected from mothers of a representative sample of Puerto Rican infants. Focusing on both financial contributions and participation in child care (e.g., diapering, feeding and bathing the child), the behavior of nonresident fathers is compared to that of cohabiting fathers and married fathers. A key question addressed in the analysis is whether father involvement is influenced primarily by the father's economic status or whether other factors identified in the literature are also important for Puerto Ricans. Overall, our results underscore the critical role of employment in fathers' contributions to Puerto Rican children.
    Harker, Kathryn.
  • Immigrant Generation, Assimilation and Adolescent Psychological Well-being
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    Subject Headings:
    • Teenage immigrants -- United States -- Psychology.
    • Adolescent psychology -- United States.
    • Children of immigrants -- United States -- Psychology.
    Abstract:
      Utilizing data on adolescents in secondary school from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this article examines the link between immigrant generation and adolescent psychological well-being. I find that first-generation immigrants experience less depression and greater positive well-being than their native-born agemates of similar demographic and family backgrounds. Second-generation immigrants, however, do not differ significantly from native-born youth in terms of psychological well-being. A number of family influences serve as "protective" factors that enable first-generation immigrants to maintain their higher levels of well-being. These factors include parental supervision, lack of parent-child conflict, religious practices, and social support. Assimilation among first-generation immigrants, as measured by age at arrival in the U.S., does not significantly affect their positive well-being.
    Alon, Sigal.
    Donahoe, Debra Anne.
    Tienda, Marta.
  • The Effects of Early Work Experience on Young Women's Labor Force Attachment
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    Subject Headings:
    • Women employees -- Psychology.
    • Teenage girls -- United States.
    • Women employees -- Supply and demand.
    Abstract:
      In this article, we examine women's labor force experience during the early life course in order to assess the conditions conducive to the establishment of stable labor force careers. To represent the complexity of women's work trajectories during young adulthood, we develop a conceptual framework that depicts a broad range of work activity profiles. Empirical results obtained using the NLSY show that three aspects of early experience influence mature women's labor force attachment, namely the amount of experience accumulated; the timing of work experience; and the volatility of that experience. Above and beyond these experience measures, we also find that background factors influence adult women's attachment to the market. The conclusion discusses the policy implications of these results.
    McCarthy, Bill.
    Hagan, John, 1946-
  • When Crime Pays: Capital, Competence, and Criminal Success
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    Subject Headings:
    • Success -- Psychological aspects.
    • Criminal psychology.
    • Criminals -- Economic conditions.
    Abstract:
      Several theoretical traditions offer insights into individual success in conventional activities. We extend this work, suggesting that explanations of success also apply to crime: although prosperity in licit or illicit activities has several unique antecedents, success in either endeavor is influenced by common faactors. Most research on conventional success focuses on the effects of human and social capital, and criminal forms of these are important for illegal success. We argue that various aspects of conventional personal capital -- a heightened desire for wealth, a propensity for risk-taking, a willingness to cooperate and competence -- also play important roles in both legal and illegal prosperity. We demonstrate the importance of various types of capital, particularly the salience of personal capital, with data on drug-selling income.
    Jones, Katharine W.
  • "I've Called 'em Tom-ah-toes All My Life and I'm Not Going to Change!": Maintaining Linguistic Control Over English Identity in the U.S.
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    Subject Headings:
    • Anthropological linguistics -- United States.
    • English language -- United States.
    • Ethnopsychology.
    Abstract:
      This article explores how national identities are constructed through language by examining the accent negotiations of a group of white English immigrants to the U.S. Pointing to the anxiety that any Americanization of their accents engendered, I show how individuals cope with claiming an identity that seems to be undermined by their speech style. They negotiated this contradiction in two ways: first, they feared that an invisible audience of English people would unmask them as not properly English; and second, they used distancing mechanisms -- namely, sarcasm, disgust, anxiety about disloyalty, and a recourse to physicality -- to distance themselves from the Americanisms that crept into their linguistic habitus. These mechanisms allowed the immigrants to maintain their sense of Englishness even when they did not sound English.
    Rotolo, Thomas.
    McPherson, J. Miller.
  • The System of Occupations: Modeling Occupations in Sociodemographic Space
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    Subject Headings:
    • Occupations -- Sociological aspects.
    • Professions -- Sociological aspects.
    Abstract:
      What accounts for changes in the social composition of occupations over time? We address this question by adapting an ecological theory of competition from McPherson (1983). This theory suggests that occupations compete for members in a niche space defined by the social composition of an occupation's members. As one occupation successfully acquires and retains new people with different sociodemographic characteristics, other occupations experience shifts in their sociodemographic composition. Using the Current Population Survey Annual Demographic Files (1972-82), we test dynamic hypotheses about changes in the age and education composition of occupations. The data strongly support the theory. We then ask whether the same dynamics apply to the professions and occupations. The data suggest that professional closure limits the movement of professions in the education dimension.
    Kanazawa, Satoshi.
  • De Gustibus Est Disputandum
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    Subject Headings:
    • Values.
    • Genetic psychology.
    • Rational choice theory.
    Abstract:
      While rational choice theorists have made great advances in their study of institutions and structures (and how they affect behavior), they have made less progress toward understanding the origins of values. I propose that the emerging field of evolutionary psychology complements rational choice theory by providing a theory of values, and that current explanations of values and preferences, such as learning, norms, and identities, are all compatible with evolutionary psychology, which provides more ultimate explanations for these proximate causes of behavior. The incorporation of evolutionary psychology into rational choice theory can also solve some of the persistent puzzles of rational choice theory: Why do so many players in Prisoner's Dilemma games make the irrational choice to cooperate? Why do people participate in collective action? Why do people sometimes behave "irrationally" by acting on their emotions? Why does rational choice theory appear to be more applicable to men than to women?
    Eijck, Koen van.
  • Social Differentiation in Musical Taste Patterns
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    Subject Headings:
    • Music -- Social aspects.
    • Music appreciation -- Economic aspects.
    Abstract:
      In this article, we investigate patterns of musical taste using a large sample from the Dutch population. It is found that members from higher-status groups tend to be more omnivorous (that is, they like more different musical genres) than those from lower-status groups, which is in line with Peterson's (1992; Peterson & Simkus 1992) hypothesis. The actual difference is, however, rather small and occurs only with regard to the number of genres that respondents like at least "more or less," not with regard to their favorite genres. In order to discover the combinatorial logic by which musical genres are clustered into specific taste patterns, a factor model is estimated. The results indicate that musical genres can be structured on the basis of three basic "discourses" (highbrow, pop, folk). The so-called omnivores comprise a specific fraction of the higher-status groups known as the new middle class, whose tastes combine a set of genres related to all these discourses.

Book Reviews

    Rock, Paul Elliott.
  • Émile Durkheim: Law in a Moral Domain (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cotterrell, Roger (Roger B. M.) Émile Durkheim: law in a moral domain.
    • Durkheim, Emile, 1858-1917.
    Aho, James Alfred, 1942-
  • Theorizing the Standoff: Contingency in Action (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wagner-Pacifici, Robin Erica. Theorizing the standoff: contingency in action.
    • Social conflict.
    Duina, Francesco G., 1969-
  • Political Will and Personal Belief: The Decline and Fall of Soviet Communism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hollander, Paul, 1932- Political will and personal belief: the decline and fall of Soviet communism.
    • Soviet Union -- Politics and government.
    Campbell, David, 1961-
  • Sociology after Bosnia and Kosovo: Recovering Justice (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Doubt, Keith. Sociology after Bosnia and Kosovo: recovering justice.
    • Yugoslav War, 1991-1995 -- Social aspects.
    Blee, Kathleen M.
  • A Generation Divided: The New Left, the New Right, and the 1960s (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Klatch, Rebecca E. Generation divided: the new left, the new right, and the 1960s.
    • Conservatism -- United States.
    Maume, David J.
  • Glass Ceilings and Asian Americans: The New Face of Workplace Barriers (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Woo, Deborah, 1951- Glass ceilings and Asian Americans: the new face of workplace barriers.
    • Asian Americans -- Employment.
    Owens, Timothy J. (Timothy Joseph)
  • The Myth of Self-Esteem: Finding Happiness and Solving Problems in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hewitt, John P., 1941- Myth of self-esteem: finding happiness and solving problems in America.
    • Self-esteem.
    Bartkowski, John P., 1966-
  • Christian America?: What Evangelicals Really Want (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Smith, Christian (Christian Stephen), 1960- Christian America?: what evangelicals really want.
    • Evangelicalism -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    Alter, Joseph S.
  • Movies, Masculinity and Modernity: An Ethnography of Men's Filmgoing in India (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Derné, Steve, 1960- Movies, masculinity and modernity: an ethnography of men's filmgoing in India.
    • Motion pictures -- India.
    Jenness, Valerie, 1963-
  • Moral Panic: Changing Concepts of the Child Molester in Modern America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jenkins, Philip, 1952- Moral panic: changing concepts of the child molester in modern America.
    • Child molesters -- United States -- Psychology.
    Nock, Steven L.
  • Marriage in a Culture of Divorce (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hackstaff, Karla B., 1954- Marriage in a culture of divorce.
    • Marriage -- United States -- Longitudinal studies.



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