Until now, teachers and learners of NZSL have not had access to
information on the most frequently used signs in the Deaf community.
This article describes the first study of the distribution of signs
in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL). We hope that it will help
teachers of NZSL make decisions about which signs to teach first and
suggest questions for investigation into other signed languages using
a corpus analysis approach.
United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy.
When the federal government began in the 1880s to regulate immigration,
the exclusion of what were termed "defectives"
was one of the primary aims. Deaf people were among the thousands
of disabled immigrants turned back each year at U.S. ports as "undesirables." Stereotyped as economically dependent
and as carriers of potentially defective genes, deaf immigrants were
seen as a threat to the nation. The advent of immigration restriction
was one aspect of a pervasive and intensified stigmatization of disability
during this period, which also saw the widespread incarceration
of mentally disabled people in institutions, the sterilization of the "unfit" under state eugenic laws, the suppression of sign
language, and a growing tendency to exclude disabled people from
social and cultural life.
American Sign Language -- Computer-assisted instruction.
This article presents an overview of current automatic sign recognition
research. A review of recent studies, as well as on our own research,
has identified several problem areas that hamper successful
sign recognition by a computer. Some of these problems are shared
with automatic speech recognition, whereas others seem to be
unique to automatic sign recognition. These latter difficulties include
context dependency, determination of the basic units of modeling,
the ability to distinguish between signs and gestures, movement
epenthesis, and repetition within signs. As a possible solution to these
problems, bottom-up processing should perhaps be supplemented
with top-down processing.
American Sign Language -- Transliteration -- Study and teaching.
The expansion of interpretation research projects across national
boundaries contributes to improved personal, professional, and intellectual
outcomes for researchers and practitioners. Establishing and
maintaining these collaborative teams may be especially beneficial to
strengthening the research agenda of new researchers. Conducting
international studies requires intercultural sensitivity in all stages of a
project (Deaf culture as well as ethnicity-related cultures) and has the
potential to combine culture-specific perspectives and expertise for a
more comprehensive application of results. The project design, supported
by literature on international joint ventures, was a process of
organizing stable international research collaboration that incorporated
interdisciplinary expertise at three universities (University of
ArkansasLittle Rock, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and
the Karl-Franzens-University of Graz, Austria). This article follows
the project through its conceptualization and initial study (2002),
expansion beyond the initial research project (2004), data collection,
analysis, and dissemination (2005). It presents potential options for
data analysis and a description of the sample (n = 1,546). Topics
of discussion include applying international joint venture stability research
to establishing and maintaining research alliances, improving
communication and collaborative skills, identifying mutually beneficial
research topics with international universities, and applying results
to the participating programs.