Sign Language Studies

Sign Language Studies
Volume 4, Number 2, Winter 2004

CONTENTS

Commentary

    Johnson, Robert Clover.
  • Educational Reform Meets Deaf Education at a National Conference
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    Subject Headings:
    • High Stakes Testing: Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children Being Left Behind? (2002 : Washington, D.C.)
    • Deaf children -- Education -- United States -- Congresses.

Articles

    Metzger, Melanie.
    Fleetwood, Earl.
    Collins, Steven D.
  • Discourse Genre and Linguistic Mode: Interpreter Influences in Visual and Tactile Interpreted Interaction
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    Subject Headings:
    • American Sign Language -- Social aspects.
    • Deaf -- Means of communication -- United States.
    • Interaction analysis in education.
    Abstract:
      This study investigates visual and tactile ASL-English interpreters’ influences on interactive discourse through an interactional sociolinguistic analysis of videotaped, interpreted interactions. We examine the participation framework of each of the interactions to determine whether the interpreters’ utterances influence the interaction. For example, how do interpreters’ code choices align them with the Deaf-sighted, Deaf-Blind, or hearing participants? How do interpreters create footings within their renditions and self-generated nonrenditions? Based on a growing body of research on tactile signed languages and on signed language interpretation of dyadic interaction such as student-teacher meetings, medical interviews, and multi-party genres such as classroom discourse, this study examines ways in which discourse genre and linguistic mode contribute to those interpreter-generated influences.

    Mitchell, Ross E.
    Karchmer, Michael A.
  • Chasing the Mythical Ten Percent: Parental Hearing Status of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in the United States
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    Subject Headings:
    • Deaf children -- Education -- United States.
    • Children of deaf parents -- United States.
    • American Sign Language -- Social aspects.
    Abstract:
      This article investigates the basis for the frequently reported statement that ten percent of deaf persons are born to families with one or more deaf parents. The prevalence of deaf children born to deaf parents (deaf-of-deaf) is important because it is often cited when describing linguistic and educational advantages, along with social and cultural differences, associated with deaf children born to deaf parents compared to deaf children of hearing parents. This analysis provides a current estimate for the distribution of parental hearing status among deaf and hard of hearing students in United States using data from the Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Youth (1999–2000). This is the first national estimate that fully utilizes the distinction between children having deaf parents and hard of hearing parents, as well as hearing parents. The authors propose that the key demographic to report, other than that the overwhelming majority of deaf and hard of hearing students have hearing parents, is whether the child has one or two deaf parents. The annual survey findings indicate that less than five percent of deaf and hard of hearing students receiving special education are known to have at least one deaf parent, which is less than half of the presumed ten percent. Reasons for the difference between the present and previous estimates are suggested.
    Russo, Tommaso.
  • Iconicity and Productivity in Sign Language Discourse: An Analysis of Three LIS Discourse Registers
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    Subject Headings:
    • Italian Sign Language -- Morphology.
    • Iconicity (Linguistics)
    Abstract:
      In this article the linguistic features of three Italian Sign Language (Lingua Italiana dei Segni, or LIS) registers are analyzed focusing on iconic phenomena. Previous treatments of iconicity and motivation in spoken and signed language are discussed. Iconicity is defined as a regular mapping between expressive form and meaning that can be active in the citation form of signs and/or in discourse. Accordingly two major kinds of iconicity are devised in spoken and signed languages: (1) Frozen Iconicity, which affects citation forms and (2) Dynamic Iconicity, which is active in discourse. Three different kinds of LIS texts (poems, narrative, and conferences) are compared to assess to which degree Frozen Iconicity and different types of Dynamic Iconicity are present in each register. Articulatory features of signs in discourse such as two handedness, one handedness, coarticulation and simultaneous syntax are also examined. Analysis demonstrates differences in the presence of frozen and dynamic iconic features in the three registers: frozen iconic forms prevail in Poems and Dynamic Iconicity is particularly prevalent both in Poems and in Narratives. A comparable presence of coarticulation and simultaneous syntax affects the three different kinds of texts. Conclusions are drawn which point out that iconic features of signs are an important structural resource of SLs that can be enhanced in discourse according to different textual and situational contexts.

Book Review Essay

    Krentz, Christopher.
  • Deaf Culture Prevails
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burch, Susan. Signs of resistance: American deaf cultural history, 1900 to World War II.
    • Gaillard, Henri, 1866- Gaillard in deaf America: a portrait of the deaf community, 1917.
    • Buchanan, Robert M., ed.
    • Sayers, William, tr.
    • Deaf -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • Deaf -- United States.

Book Review

    White, Bruce A.
  • Disability Studies: Enabling the Humanities (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Snyder, Sharon L., 1963-, ed. Disability studies: enabling the humanities.
    • Brueggemann, Brenda Jo, 1958-, ed.
    • Thomson, Rosemarie Garland, ed.
    • Disability studies.

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