Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies

Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 19.4, Summer 2001

Special Issue
Sephardic Studies as an Interdisciplinary Field
Special Issue Editor: Bruce Mitchell

Contents

Articles

    Zucker, George K., 1939-
  • Ladino, Judezmo, Spanyolit, El Kasteyano Muestro
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ladino language.
    Abstract:
      Throughout their travels, the Sefardim have taken with them their lingua franca, a language which originated in Spain and was changed by the fact that it was written in the Hebrew alphabet, by its separation from mainstream Spanish, by its intimate association with the dominant languages in the areas of settlement, and, especially in the Ottoman territories, by the Alliance Israélite Universelle schools, which provided elementary and secondary education for Sefardic youngsters, all in French. The latter circumstance explains why a majority of material written by Sefardim appears in that language. Not even native speakers agree on what to call what, in the academic world, is generally known as Judeo-Spanish; there are those who refer to it as "Ladino," "Judezmo," "Spanyolit," "El Kasteyano Muestro," and even simply "Espaniol." How to write the language using the Roman alphabet has also been problematic. Some circumstances indicate that Jewish Castilian was recognizably different from non-Jewish Castilian before the expulsion of 1492, but its subsequent relative exile from mainstream Spanish has widened that difference. Given over five centuries of separation, its similarities to mainstream Spanish are more surprising than the differences between the two.
    Esformes, María.
  • Three Sefardic Folktales from Salonika, Greece
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sephardim -- Greece -- Thessalonike -- Folklore.
    Abstract:
      This paper contains an example of three folktales of the Greek Sefardim. They are moralistic and didactic and serve a double purpose: to teach and to entertain. The first story shows the complex relationship between fate, destiny, and free-will. The hero of the story, through his own efforts and by the performance of a good deed, is able to change his negative destiny for the better. The second story is one of friendship and co-operation between a Jewish and Christian woman. They join forces and, through cleverness and trickery, are once again able to change a negative destiny into something more positive. The third story teaches the importance of gratitude to God for all the pleasures that humans enjoy in life. The stories are translated from Judeo-Spanish into English. An example of the original Judeo-Spanish is included for one of the stories.
    Ascher, Gloria J.
  • Sephardic Songs, Proverbs, and Expressions: A Continuing Tradition
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sephardim -- Music.
    • Proverbs, Ladino.
    Abstract:
      The Sephardic folk tradition embodied in these songs, proverbs, and expressions in Spanyol is a living, evolving tradition. The proverbs and expressions, the legacy of my Izmirlí family, reveal surprising relationships to the broader Sephardic experience and literary and philosophical tradition. Beyond the traditional songs, new compositions, including my own, have enriched the tradition. These new songs reflect enduring Sephardic concerns and values--the ambivalent attitude toward Spain and the appreciation of the value of life. The creative resilience of the Sephardim, supported and encouraged by new efforts, should insure a healthy future for the Sephardic language and folk tradition.
    Nadler, Steven M., 1958-
  • The Excommunication of Spinoza: Trouble and Toleration in the "Dutch Jerusalem"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Spinoza, Benedictus de, 1632-1677.
    • Excommunication (Jewish law)
    • Sephardim -- Netherlands -- Amsterdam -- Social life and customs -- 17th century.
    Abstract:
      Baruch de Spinoza, one of the most important philosophers of his time, and certainly the most radical, was excommunicated from Amsterdam's Sefardic synagogue at the age of twenty-four. The immediate reasons for the cherem pronounced against him remain hidden, although there are some good reasons for thinking that he was already propounding the heretical views that are found in his later writings. In this essay, however, I look closely at the political context for Spinoza's excommunication, especially in the relationship between Amsterdam's Jews and Dutch society.
    Koén-Sarano, Matilda, 1939-
    Mitchell, Bruce, tr.
  • Ensenyando el Djudeo-Espanyol (Ladino) en la Universidad Ben-Gurion
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ladino language -- Study and teaching -- Israel -- Negev.
    • Universitat Ben-Guryon ba-Negev -- Curricula.
    Abstract:
      Eksperiensas de ensenyansa del djudeo-espanyol (ladino) avlado, en la Universidad Ben- Gurion en el Negev, al prinsipio del kuartén anyo akadémiko, en el kurso tenido por mí en el "Merkaz Eliachar."

      Deskripsión de los dos kursos semestrales: para Prinsipiates i para Adelantados, ande se topan integrados los dos lados de la ensenyansa de una lingua: forma i kontenido: reglas de lektura i eskritura, reglas gramatikales i sintáktikas, eksplikadas através reflanes, kantigas, kuentos, poezías modernas i mas.

      Kompozisión i publikasión de dos livros de estudio de la lingua para Prinsipiantes i para Adelantados, kon sus Vokabulario i Tabelas de Verbos en djudeo-espanyol (ladino).

      El sistema gráfiko de los Kursos i de los livros es el sistema en letras latinas de la Revista "Akí Yerushaláyim," kon la empozisión de la aksentuasión sigún la lingua espanyola.

    Sephiha, Vidal.
    Mitchell, Bruce, tr.
  • The Instruction of Judeo-Spanish in Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ladino language -- Study and teaching -- Europe.
    • Ladino literature -- Study and teaching -- Europe.
    Abstract:
      This article recounts the development of Sefardic studies in Europe, focusing on the introduction of Judeo-Spanish language and literature courses at universities during the last quarter of the twentieth century. In 1984, Professor Sephiha became the first chaired professor of Judeo-Spanish in the world. During his career at the University of Paris (1967-1991), Professor Sephiha supervised more than 300 thesis papers dealing with Judeo-Spanish linguistics and literature. Aside from his own efforts, Judeo-Spanish courses have been introduced at other universities in France as well as in Germany, Spain, Belgium, Scandinavia, and the former Soviet block countries. As an example of university courses in Judeo-Spanish, Professor Sephiha outlines and analyzes his own course offered at the University of Paris.
    Santa Puche, Salvador.
    Mitchell, Bruce, tr.
  • Forging the Didactics of Sefardic Language and Literature
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ladino language -- Study and teaching.
    • Ladino literature -- Study and teaching.
    Abstract:
      "Forging the Didactics of Sefardic Language and Literature" attempts to establish criteria for the instruction of Judeo-Spanish and its literature as a didactic unit. The problem of the future of the Sefardic language lies, among other factors, in our capacity to develop adequate projects for the language learning process. From February to April 2000 a course was given at the University of Tartu, Estonia, thanks to the generosity of the Soros Foundation. This article establishes the objectives, the methodology, and the themes for classroom instruction. The final objective of the course is to demonstrate that the Judeo- Spanish language and its culture are suitable material for instruction at any university.
    Ascher, Gloria J.
  • Teaching "Ladino Language and Culture" and "Aspects of the Sephardic Tradition": Hopes, Fruits, Experiences
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ladino language -- Study and teaching -- Massachusetts -- Boston.
    • Sephardim -- Study and teaching -- Massachusetts -- Boston.
    • Tufts University -- Curricula.
    Refael, Shmuel.
  • Current Methods and Methodology in Ladino Teaching
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ladino language -- Study and teaching -- Israel.
    • Sephardim -- Study and teaching -- Israel.
    Abstract:
      "Current Methods and Methodology in Ladino Teaching" presents an historical overview of Ladino research in Israel from the early 1960s until the present day, which forms a backdrop for recent developments in the pedagogy of Ladino. Although the researchers of the sixties were primarily interested in the preservation of archaic Spanish forms in the Ladino ballads, recent years have witnessed the establishment of Ladino as a field of university investigation in its own right. As a result of an increased interest in Sefardic Studies as a separate discipline, committed scholars have successfully convinced Israeli universities that Ladino should be transmitted to a young generation of students as a research tool. Accordingly, most of the Ladino language learning materials are prepared for university students for the purpose of scientific investigation. Proficiency in Ladino using the Rashi script is preferable to Latin letters as it gives the student access to several centuries of Ladino literary documents. Adequate Hebrew/Ladino and Ladino/Hebrew dictionaries have yet to be developed.

Review Essay

    Wojcik, Jan, 1944-
  • Taking the David Story out of its Box
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    Subject Headings:
    • Alter, Robert, tr. David story: a translation with commentary of 1 and 2 Samuel.
    • Kirsch, Jonathan, 1949- King David: the real life of the man who ruled Israel.
    • McKenzie, Steven L., 1953- King David: a biography.
    • Bible. O.T. Samuel -- Commentaries.
    • David, King of Israel.

Book Reviews

    Eslinger, Lyle M., 1953-
  • Give us a King!: Samuel, Saul, and David (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fox, Everett, tr. Give us a king!: Samuel, Saul, and David.
    • Bible. O.T. Samuel.
    Jeffrey, David L., 1941-
  • The Jewish Bible and the Christian Bible: An Introduction to the History of the Bible (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Trebolle Barrera, Julio C. Jewish Bible and the Christian Bible: an introduction to the history of the Bible.
    • Watson, Wilfred G.E., tr.
    • Bible -- History.
    Diebold, William J.
  • Made in God's Image?: Eve and Adam in the Genesis Mosaics at San Marco, Venice (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jolly, Penny Howell. Made in God's image?: Eve and Adam in the Genesis mosaics at San Marco, Venice.
    • Mosaics, Medieval -- Italy -- Venice.
    Borowski, Oded.
  • The Israelites in History and Tradition (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lemche, Niels Peter. Israelites in history and tradition.
    • Jews -- History -- To 586 B.C. -- Sources.
    Robertson, Stuart.
  • The Image of the Jew in Flavius Josephus' Paraphrase of the Bible (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Spilsbury, Paul, 1966- Image of the Jew in Flavius Josephus' paraphrase of the Bible.
    • Josephus, Flavius. Antiquitates Judaicae.
    Finney, Paul Corby.
  • This Holy Place: On the Sanctity of the Synagogue during the Greco-Roman Period (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fine, Steven. This holy place: on the sanctity of the synagogue during the Greco-Roman period.
    • Synagogues -- History.
    Gruber, Mayer I. (Mayer Irwin)
  • Judaism and Disability: Portrayals in Ancient Texts from the Tanach through the Bavli (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Abrams, Judith Z. Judaism and disability: portrayals in ancient texts from the Tanach through the Bavli.
    • Handicapped in the Bible.
    Haas, Peter J. (Peter Jerome)
  • A Tree of Life: Diversity, Flexibility, and Creativity in Jewish Law, and: Evolving Halakhah: A Progressive Approach to Traditional Jewish Law (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jacobs, Louis. Tree of life: diversity, flexibility, and creativity in Jewish law.
    • Zemer, Moshe, 1932- Evolving halakhah: a progressive approach to traditional Jewish law.
    • Jewish law -- Philosophy.
    • Jewish law -- Reform Judaism.
    Kahn, Yoel H.
  • To Worship God Properly: Tensions Between Liturgical Custom and Halakhah in Judaism (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Langer, Ruth, 1960- To worship God properly: tensions between liturgical custom and halakhah in Judaism.
    • Judaism -- Liturgy -- History.
    Kanarfogel, Ephraim.
  • Rabbinic Authority (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Berger, Michael S. Rabbinic authority.
    • Talmud -- Evidences, authority, etc.
    Haas, Peter J. (Peter Jerome)
  • Introducing Tosefta: Textual, Intratextual and Intertextual Studies (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fox, Harry, 1946-, ed. Introducing Tosefta: textual, intratextual and intertextual studies.
    • Meacham, Tirzah, ed.
    • Tosefta -- Criticism, interpretation, etc. -- Congresses.
    Zenner, Walter P.
  • Israel: The Dynamics of Change and Continuity (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Levi-Faur, David, ed. Israel: the dynamics of change and continuity.
    • Sheffer, Gabriel, ed.
    • Vogel, David, 1947-, ed.
    • Israel.
    Freedman, Robert Owen.
  • Rabin and Israel's National Security (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Inbar, Efraim, 1947- Rabin and Israel's national security.
    • Rabin, Yitzhak, 1922-
    Karsh, Efraim.
  • The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shlaim, Avi. Iron wall: Israel and the Arab world.
    • Arab-Israeli conflict.
    Steinhardt, Inácio, 1933-
  • Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lipiner, Elias. Two Portuguese exiles in Castile.
    • Negro, David, 14th century.
    Berghahn, Klaus L.
  • Literarischer Antisemitismus: Untersuchungen zu Gustav Freytag und anderen bürgerlichen Schriftstellern des 19. Jahrhunderts (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gubser, Martin. Literarischer Antisemitismus: Untersuchungen zu Gustav Freytag und anderen bürgerlichen Schriftstellern des 19. Jahrhunderts.
    • Freytag, Gustav, 1816-1895 -- Criticism and interpretation.
    Bolkosky, Sidney M.
  • The Lion and the Star: Gentile-Jewish Relations in Three Hessian Communities, 1919-1945 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Friedman, Jonathan C., 1966- Lion and the star: gentile-Jewish relations in three Hessian communities, 1919-1945.
    • Jews -- Germany -- Frankfurt am Main -- History -- 20th century.
    Stein, Sarah Abrevaya.
  • There Once Was a World, A 900-Year Chronicle of the Shtetl of Eishyshok (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eliach, Yaffa. There once was a world, a 900-year chronicle of the shtetl of Eishyshok.
    • Jews -- Lithuania -- Eisiskes -- History.
    Mesher, D.
  • Sun Turned to Darkness: Memory and Recovery in the Holocaust Memoir (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Patterson, David, 1948- Sun turned to darkness: memory and recovery in the Holocaust memoir.
    • Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) -- Personal narratives -- History and criticism.
    Berding, Helmut.
    Bell, Dean, tr.
  • "Zum Schutze des deutschen Blutes ...": "Rassenschandegesetze" im Nationalsozialismus (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ley, Michael, 1955- "Zum Schutze des deutschen Blutes ...": "Rassenschandegesetze" im Nationalsozialismus.
    • Jews -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Austria -- History -- 20th century.
    Berding, Helmut.
    Bell, Dean, tr.
  • Antisemitische Kriminalität und Gewalt: Judenfeindschaft in der Weimarer Republik (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Walter, Dirk, 1968- Antisemitische Kriminalität und Gewalt: Judenfeindschaft in der Weimarer Republik.
    • Antisemitism -- Germany -- History -- 20th century.
    Bergen, Doris L.
  • "Final Solution": Nazi Population Policy and the Murder of the European Jews (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Aly, Götz, 1947- "Final solution": Nazi population policy and the murder of the European Jews.
    • Cooper, Belinda, tr.
    • Brown, Allison, tr.
    • Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) -- Causes.
    Haberer, Erich.
  • Die Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941/42: Die Tätigkeits- und Lageberichte des Chefs der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Klein, Peter, ed. Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941/42: die Tätigkeits- und Lageberichte des Chefs der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD.
    • Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) -- Soviet Union -- Sources.
    Adamthwaite, Anthony P.
  • Uneasy Asylum: France and the Jewish Refugee Crisis, 1933-1942 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Caron, Vicki, 1951- Uneasy asylum: France and the Jewish refugee crisis, 1933-1942.
    • Jews -- France -- History -- 20th century.
    Shandler, Jeffrey.
  • Selling the Holocaust: From Auschwitz to Schindler, How History is Bought, Packaged and Sold (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cole, Tim. Selling the Holocaust: from Auschwitz to Schindler, how history is bought, packaged and sold.
    • Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) -- Influence.
    Feingold, Henry L., 1931-
  • While America Watches: Televising the Holocaust (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Shandler, Jeffrey. While America watches: televising the Holocaust.
    • Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), on television -- United States.
    Dinnerstein, Leonard.
  • Shared Dreams: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Jewish Community (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Schneier, Marc, 1959- Shared dreams: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Jewish community.
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968 -- Relations with Jews.
    Merowitz, Morton J.
  • Between the Yeshiva World and Modern Orthodoxy: The Life and Works of Rabbi Jehiel Jacob Weinberg, 1884-1966 (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Shapiro, Marc B. Between the yeshiva world and modern orthodoxy: the life and works of Rabbi Jehiel Jacob Weinberg, 1884-1966.
    • Weinberg, Jehiel Jacob, d. 1966.
    Augustine, Dolores L.
  • Die Familie Mosse: Deutsch-jüdisches Bürgertum im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kraus, Elisabeth. Familie Mosse: deutsch-jüdisches Bürgertum im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert.
    • Moss family.
    Weinberg, David.
  • Philosemitism: Admiration and Support in the English-Speaking World for Jews, 1840-1939 (review)
    [Access article in HTML]
    Subject Headings:
    • Rubinstein, W. D. Philosemitism: admiration and support in the English-speaking world for Jews, 1840-1939.
    • Rubinstein, Hilary L.
    • Philosemitism -- English-speaking countries -- History -- 19th century.



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