SAIS Review

SAIS Review
Volume 25, Number 1, Winter-Spring 2005
Special Issue: Villainy

CONTENTS

Theoretical Perspectives

    Rengger, N. J. (Nicholas J.)
    Jeffery, Renée.
  • Moral Evil and International Relations
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    Subject Headings:
    • Good and evil.
    • International relations -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Abstract:
      This essay seeks to situate and contextualize contemporary debates about evil in international relations by placing them in their historical, theological and philosophical contexts. It emphasizes the sense that evil can and has been divided into moral and non-moral evils (such as natural evils) and argues that in international relations, and indeed politics in general, the central concern has always been with moral evil. It traces the emergence of three central ways of approaching the concept of evil: the Augustinian emphasis on evil as an absence not a presence; the Kantian conception of radical evil; and Hannah Arendt's notion of the "banality" of evil and looks at how each is manifested in contemporary discussions of evil in world politics. It also offers some thoughts on how we might think about responding to evil in world politics.
    Gvosdev, Nikolas K., 1969-
  • The Value(s) of Realism
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Philosophy.
    Abstract:
      Many of the foreign policy challenges facing United States seem new, with unseen enemies targeting its security and some reluctant populations bucking U.S. economic and military might. In this context, it is time to return to the realist tradition, which encompasses a more diverse collection of views than is often characterized by critics and accepts that values must be taken into account in formulating foreign policy, especially that the internal character of a state is relevant in determining what sort of relationship it will have with the United States.

The Question of Elimination

    Thomas, Ward, 1963-
  • The New Age of Assassination
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    Subject Headings:
    • Assassination.
    • Sovereignty.
    • World politics -- 21st century.
    Abstract:
      Long rejected as illegitimate and even immoral, the targeted killing of specific foreign adversaries has become a prominent issue in policy debates. While ethical misgivings remain, government officials and commentators alike are more willing than ever to consider whether, in the words of one proponent, "a well-placed rifle shot . . . might preclude the need for massing our forces on the borders of a hostile rogue nation." This article explores the current state of the norm against assassination, discussing the origins and recent decline of the norm and its impact on U.S. policy since the terrorist attacks of Sep. 11, 2001. In responding to immediate threats to its security, the United States has neglected the potentially more profound danger posed by the decline in sovereign states' control over the means of violence in the international system. Focusing attention on this phenomenon suggests the need to draw clear distinctions between state and non-state actors in devising a national policy on targeted killings.
    Kasher, Asa.
    Yadlin, Amos.
  • Assassination and Preventive Killing
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    Subject Headings:
    • Assassination -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Terrorism -- Prevention -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    • Arab-Israeli conflict -- 1993-
    Abstract:
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the role that may be played by assassination witihin the framework of fighting terror. Since the term "assassination" has had various usages in both professional and public discourses, the first part of the paper will be devoted to an elucidation of that term. The second part of the paper will briefly outline several principles of the military ethics for fighting terror, which are meant to govern acts of targeted pre-emptive or preventive killing, as developed by a team of the IDF College of National Defense. In the final part of the paper, we will show that those ethical principles do not sanction a strategy of assassination but do allow its use as a morally justified tactic under certain conditions. The conclusion we will reach is that, strictly speaking, unlike preventative killing assassination has not been prevalent in the context of the current conflict between Israel and Palestinian terror organizations.

Rogues, Thubs, and Outlaws

    Stohl, Rachel J.
  • Fighting the Illicit Trafficking of Small Arms
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    Subject Headings:
    • Illegal arms transfers -- Prevention.
    • Firearms industry and trade -- Corrupt practices.
    • Arms transfers -- Law and legislation.
    Abstract:
      The illicit trafficking in small arms is a trans-national phenomenon. This trade arms terrorists and terrorist groups operating around the world and is central to the U.S. global war on terror. The line between the legal and illicit trades in small arms is often blurred, fuelled by the lack of strict international criteria and controls. Around the world, the illegal income generated by exploiting resources such as timber, drugs, diamonds, and other minerals perpetuates conflicts and corruption. Arms brokers can operate because they are able to circumvent national arms controls and international arms embargoes or to obtain official protection. Developing policies to address the illicit trafficking in small arms cannot be done in a vacuum or by the United States unilaterally. Other countries, on a national, regional and international level, must develop stronger controls on legal sales and increase and enhance international cooperation.

Of Note

Of Note

    Sannikov, Andrei.
  • The Accidental Dictatorship of Alexander Lukashenko
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    Subject Headings:
    • Lukashenko, Aleksandr, 1954-
    • Belarus -- Politics and government -- 1991-
    Abstract:
      A decade after the people of Belarus democratically elected Alexander Lukashenko, a former collective farm director, to the country's presidency in 1994, he is Europe's last dictator. The means by which he has achieved this position are worth analyzing, as they shed light on possible future developments in the former Soviet bloc and Europe as a whole.
    Erikson, Daniel P.
  • Charting Castro's Possible Successors
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cuba -- Politics and government -- 1959-
    • Cuba -- Forecasting.
    Abstract:
      Fidel Castro has been president of Cuba for close to 50 years, but—despite the hopes of some around el Comandante—he will not live forever. Observers watch Castro's health and the swirl of leaders in his inner circle. There is no clear indication that communism will collapse after his death or that his brother—Raul—will take control. A number of would-be successors wait in the wings. This article looks at the top echelon of these figures, suggesting the next leader will likely come from a group of men numbering less than 10.

Of Note

    Freese, Theresa.
  • A Report from the Field: Georgia's War against Contraband and the Struggle for Territorial Integrity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Georgia (Republic) -- Politics and government -- 1991-
    • Smuggling -- Government policy -- Georgia (Republic)
    • Georgia (Republic) -- History -- Autonomy and independence movements.
    Sultan, Maria.
  • Iran, Proliferation Magnet
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nuclear industry -- Iran.
    • Nuclear weapons -- Iran.
    • Military assistance, Russian -- Iran.
    • Military assistance, Chinese -- Iran.
    • Nuclear nonproliferation.
    Abstract:
      With the global non-proliferation watchdogs focused in on Iran, evidence suggests that the country has looked far and wide for sources to aid its nuclear program, both legitimate and otherwise. Pakistan's A.Q. Khan appears to have been an obvious source, but data indicates Russian, Chinese and European contributions as well.

Of Note

    Torello, Alessandro.
  • Kaliningrad, Adrift in Europe
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kaliningrad (Kaliningradskaia oblast, Russia) -- Social conditions.
    • Kaliningrad (Kaliningradskaia oblast, Russia) -- Economic conditions.
    Thachuk, Kimberley.
  • Corruption and International Security
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    Subject Headings:
    • Corruption.
    • Security, International.
    • World politics -- 21st century.
    Abstract:
      The Global War on Terrorism has made policy analysts the world over re-think the implications of corruption for the peaceful existence of states. Corruption has become the enabler by which groups who commit conspiracies on a global scale may threaten international security with relative impunity.

Of Note

    Dillon, Dana R.
  • Maritime Piracy: Defining the Problem
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crime -- Classification.
    • Hijacking of ships.
    • Pirates.
    • Terrorism.
    • Corruption.
    Abstract:
      The current definition of piracy is completely inadequate as a tool for policymakers. The leading statistics and reporting systems are misleading. Most acts cited are not classic boarding and hijacking of merchant vessels on the high seas. A reformulation of the definition of piracy will help focus efforts at combating the scourge.

Other Essays

    Powell, Colin L.
  • Understanding and Strategy
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    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 2001-
    • Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies.
    Abstract:
      This essay is adapted from former Secretary of State Powell's Keynote Address at the 60th Anniversary Gala of the School of Advanced International Studies on Oct. 13, 2004. The dinner was held at the Embassy of Italy. Secretary Powell was introduced and awarded the President's Medal by Johns Hopkins University President William Brody.
    Alleyne, Mark D., 1961-
  • The United Nations' Celebrity Diplomacy
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    Subject Headings:
    • United Nations -- Public relations.
    • Celebrities -- Political activity.
    • Public opinion.
    Abstract:
      The United Nations' increasing resort to celebrity diplomacy under Secretary General Kofi Annan is another dimension of a U.N. propaganda project that attempts to discursively construct a U.N. version of world order via shorthand means: by not offending governments, especially powerful ones; by studiously avoiding being based on impact research; and by promoting universality as the favored approach to internationalism.

Reviews

    Durch, William J.
  • Securing the Future of the United Nations
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    Subject Headings:
    • United Nations. High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. More secure world: our shared responsibility.
    • Security, International.
    Avruch, Kevin.
  • Stopping the Unstoppable Wars
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crocker, Chester A. Taming intractable conflicts: mediation in the hardest cases.
    • Hampson, Fen Osler.
    • Aall, Pamela R.
    • Conflict management.

Recent Books

    Priselac, Jessica.
  • Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Valentino, Benjamin A., 1971- Final solutions: mass killing and genocide in the twentieth century.
    • Genocide -- History -- 20th century.
    Wood, Randall.
  • Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cornelius, Wayne A., 1945-, ed. Controlling immigration: a global perspective.
    • Emigration and immigration -- Government policy -- Cross-cultural studies.

Correspondence

    Jones, Richard John.
  • Response to Timothy Samuel Shah, The Bible and the Ballot Box: Evangelicals and Democracy in the 'Global South,' The SAIS Review of International Affairs, 24, no. 2 (Summer-Fall 2004), 117-132
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Shah, Timothy Samuel. Bible and the ballot box: evangelicals and democracy in the 'Global South'.
    • Evangelicalism -- Political aspects -- Developing countries.



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