SAIS Review

SAIS Review
Volume 24, Number 1, Winter-Spring 2004

CONTENTS

Domestic Perspectives

    Berkowitz, Bruce D., 1956-
  • Intelligence for the Homeland
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Intelligence service -- United States.
    • National security -- United States.
    • Terrorism -- Prevention.
    Abstract:
      Two years after the September 11th attacks on America, a significant gap remains in our defenses against terrorists and other forms of foreign attack. The problem is that we still lack adequate homeland intelligence. As a result, we are still ill prepared to detect, analyze, and monitor foreign threats inside our borders.
    Martin, Kate.
  • Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties
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    Subject Headings:
    • Intelligence service -- United States.
    • National security -- United States.
    • Terrorism -- Prevention.
    • Civil rights -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Since September 11, domestic intelligence authorities and technical capabilities have been expanded to fight terrorism. There are calls to substitute an "intelligence" paradigm for a "law enforcement" paradigm in domestic counterterrorism efforts and proposals to establish a new domestic intelligence agency. While better information and analysis is needed to fight terrorism, there is reason to fear that transforming domestic counterterrorism primarily into an intelligence matter is unlikely to appreciably increase security, but will seriously threaten civil liberties. This article outlines an alternative approach that will serve to obtain the intelligence necessary to prevent catastrophic attacks without compromising civil liberties.
    Barger, Deborah G.
  • It Is Time to Transform, Not Reform, US Intelligence
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    Subject Headings:
    • Intelligence service -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Intelligence reform has traditionally been the purview of those outside of the Intelligence Community. Many insiders would argue that intelligence reform efforts have resulted in more regulation and bureaucracy and little, if any, improvement in intelligence performance. To address the challenges that the United States will face in the future, it needs to look forward to transforming intelligence, not backwards at reforming it. The transformation of intelligence, however, will require a three-way partnership among external catalysts who bring new ideas to the table, legislative overseers who support new ideas through funding and legislation, and internal supporters who evaluate and then implement change.

Terrorism, Intelligence, and Organized Crime

    Levitt, Matthew, 1970-
  • Untangling the Terror Web: Identifying and Counteracting the Phenomenon of Crossover between Terrorist Groups
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    Subject Headings:
    • Terrorism -- Prevention.
    • Security, International.
    Abstract:
      Counterterrorism should be seen not as an effort to rid the world of terrorism, but as an ongoing struggle to constrict the operating environment in which terrorists raise funds, procure documents, engage in support activities, and conduct attacks. One of the most effective ways to constrict the operating environment and crack down on terrorist financing is to target the network of interlocking logistical support groups. Many of these groups are not particular to a single terrorist organization. In fact, militant Islamist organizations from al Qaeda to Hamas interact and support one another in an international matrix of logistical, financial, and sometimes operational terrorist activity. This matrix of relationships is what makes the threat of international terrorism so dangerous. Prosecuting the war on terror, whether on the battlefield or in the courtroom, demands greater attention to the web of interaction among these various groups and state sponsors. Indeed, as this paper suggests, concerted action against terrorist financing is one of the best ways to advance not only the war on terror, but other national security priorities such as pursuing the Roadmap to Israeli-Palestinian peace, and the stabilization of Iraq.
    Sanderson, Thomas M.
  • Transnational Terror and Organized Crime: Blurring the Lines
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    Subject Headings:
    • Terrorism.
    • Organized crime.
    • War on Terrorism, 2001-
    Abstract:
      The global war on terrorism is constricting the flow of financial support to terror groups. To circumvent these measures, transnational terrorist organizations are moving deeper into organized criminal activity. This transition poses a tremendous challenge to states struggling with a threat that has changed significantly since September 11. As terror groups transform into hybrid criminal/terror entities and partner with criminal syndicates, the threat to the United States and other nations rises in complexity, demanding a highly flexible, tailored response.

Photo Essay

    Anson, Ryan.
  • Mindanao on the Mend
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mindanao Island (Philippines) -- Pictorial works.
    Abstract:
      These images were included in a book about conflict and peacebuilding entitled "Mindanao on the Mend" published by Anvil Inc., Philippines, June 2003.

Global Intelligence and Foreign Liaisons

    Warner, Michael.
  • Transformation and Intelligence Liaison
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    Subject Headings:
    • Intelligence service -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
    • National security -- United States.
    Abstract:
      Scholars have not unjustly regarded American intelligence as isolated and backward in most fields before and well into the course of World War II. Nevertheless, a closer look at the emergence of new missions for U.S. intelligence agencies during this period shows that many of these developments occured in response to contacts with friendly and adversarial foreign intelligence services. Liaison relationships, moreover, were crucial to the construction of a more modern American intelligence system during and just after the war. Charting these influences shows how liaison contacts affect a developing intelligence structure, and suggests that the quality of contacts with foreign intelligence services affects not only the direction but the pace of intelligence modernization. As a converse, inhibited liaison relationships sometimes slowed useful growth.
    Tan, See Seng, 1965-
    Ramakrishna, Kumar.
  • Interstate and Intrastate Dynamics in Southeast Asia's War on Terror
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    Subject Headings:
    • Terrorism -- Asia, Southeastern -- Prevention.
    • Intelligence service -- Asia, Southeastern.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 21st century.
    Abstract:
      Recent studies highlight the relative dearth of counterterrorism cooperation between member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Acknowledging that more can and should be done by Southeast Asian governments in interdicting terrorism, the authors nevertheless argue that hitherto collaboration between and among security and intelligence services of ASEAN and partner countries in the war on terror has been fairly effective, as evidenced by the capture of key Jemaah Islamiyah militants. On the other hand, weak state capacity and legitimacy as well as bureaucratic competition and rivalry continue to debilitate rather than facilitate national and regional counterterrorism efforts. Moreover, the apparent circumspection of regional responses to terrorism is partly a reaction to the highly militarized counterterrorism strategy embraced by the United States. Finally, the authors contend that radical Islamist terrorism can only be successfully countered by the adoption of a comprehensive approach that addresses a host of real or perceived social, economic, political and ultimately, ideological challenges.
    Leroy, Christophe.
  • Mexican Intelligence at a Crossroad
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    Subject Headings:
    • Intelligence service -- Mexico.
    • National security -- Mexico.
    Abstract:
      Following Vicente Fox's presidential election victory in July 2000, movement toward reform of Mexico's intelligence community emerged as one of the issues the new administration intended to address. The appointment of Adolfo Aguilar Zinser as National Security Advisor heralded a change in Mexico's traditional national security policymaking mechanisms, product of the 71-year rule of the Revolutionary Institutional Party. An examination of the Center of Intelligence and National Security and its legal underpinnings, along with an assessment of other underlying problems afflicting the wider intelligence community in Mexico reveal the challenges and pitfalls that confronted early reform attempts by the Fox administration. With this backdrop in mind, an overview of two specific intelligence reform bills recently introduced by opposition parties in Congress reveal the priorities legislators had in mind for overhauling the state security apparatus. Nevertheless, the slow pace of reform leaves unanswered several national security and intelligence challenges facing the Mexican state as the country grapples with an unprecedented political transition.

New Ways to Look at Old Threats

    Ostfield, Marc L.
  • Bioterrorism as a Foreign Policy Issue
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bioterrorism.
    • International relations.
    • Public health -- International cooperation.
    Abstract:
      Bioterrorism, the intentional release of biological pathogens, is distinct from other forms of terrorism in several important ways. Bioterrorist attacks are silent, low in cost and easy to replicate in multiple sites, and respect no geographical boundaries. With no central point of impact, explosion, or assault, the bioterrorist attack exists wherever and whenever one person transmits the infectious agent to another. But rather than recognizing the critical differences between nuclear, chemical, and biological attacks, analysts frequently group them into categories like "CBRN" (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear)—making it seem as if terrorist use of biological agents is merely another variant on a basic theme. This article details the differences that set bioterrorism apart, and discusses a number of implications for foreign policy decision makers, who ideally should be involved in planning for both the prevention and response to bioterrorism. Bioterrorism's distinctive foreign policy ramifications mean that those in the foreign policy establishment must work closely with public health leaders and others addressing national security to ensure effective strategies to address bioterrorism exist.
    Russell, Kevin.
  • The Subjectivity of Intelligence Analysis and Implications for the U.S. National Security Strategy
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    Subject Headings:
    • Intelligence service -- United States.
    • Iraq War, 2003.
    • National security -- United States.
    Abstract:
      The language used to describe intelligence estimates as objective reflections of available evidence has led in some cases to a misunderstanding of the role of intelligence in supporting the decision to go to war in Iraq. Saying that the estimate that identified the threats was either "right" or "wrong" ignores the probabilistic nature of intelligence assessments and the necessary subjective elements that make them useful to policymakers. By making this clear in the case of Iraq, we can separate the crucial question of how policy should be decided in the face of increased uncertainty and even more elusive enemies than have been faced in the past. Only then does it make sense to say how intelligence can be made more useful, leaving behind the misguided question of whether the intelligence community was right or wrong on Iraq.

Recommended Books

Reviews

    Elie, Jerome.
  • Intelligence and the Cold War
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    Subject Headings:
    • Aldrich, Richard J. (Richard James), 1961- Hidden hand: Britain, America and the Cold War secret intelligence.
    • Intelligence service -- History -- 20th century.
    Krilla, Jeffrey.
  • Democracy in Africa: Women Need Not Apply?
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Goetz, Anne Marie, 1961-, ed. No shortcuts to power: African women in politics and policy making.
    • Hassim, Shireen, ed.
    • Women in politics -- South Africa.

Recent Books

    Hipple, J. Andreas.
  • Shrewd Sanctions: Statecraft and State Sponsors of Terrorism (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • O'Sullivan, Meghan L. Shrewd sanctions: statecraft and state sponsors of terrorism.
    • Economic sanctions, American.
    Shafer, Katherine.
  • The Pattern of Aid Giving: The Impact of Good Governance on Development Assistance (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Neumayer, Eric, 1970- Pattern of aid giving: the impact of good governance on development assistance.
    • Economic assistance -- Political aspects.
    Featherston, Scott.
  • Act of Creation: The Founding of the United Nations (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Schlesinger, Stephen C. Act of creation: the founding of the United Nations.
    • United Nations -- History.



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