SAIS Review

SAIS Review
Volume 23, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2003
Imperialism Revived: Intervention and Impact


Contents

Essays

    Quayat, David.
  • The Russian Oil Sector and the Global Oil Economy: A Prospectus
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Petroleum industry and trade -- Russia (Federation)
    • Russia (Federation) -- Foreign economic relations.
    Abstract:
      Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, interest in the Russian oil sector has increased, particularly within the Bush administration. Russia is viewed as a potential buffer, if not substitute, for America's dependence on Middle Eastern oil. This paper presents an overview of the Russian oil sector and suggests that this optimistic vision is unlikely to be born out in reality. Incomplete attempts at legal and political reform continue to deter foreign investors, and the profits that drove Russian oil companies production gains in the late 1990s have all but evaporated. Russia also suffers from export infrastructure problems that could hamper its ability to play a meaningful role in the global market. This does not mean Russia cannot play any role in the evolving global oil market. Rather, Russia should consider its development strategy carefully, and U.S. policymakers should accept that the Middle East will continue to dominate the global energy supply.
    Fauver, Robert C.
    Stewart, Devin T.
  • U.S.-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement: Cementing a Geostrategic Economic Relationship
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Foreign economic relations -- Japan.
    • Japan -- Foreign economic relations -- United States.
    • Japan -- Economic policy -- 1989-
    • United States -- Economic policy -- 2001-
    Abstract:
      Since the 1980s, the idea of a U.S.-Japan free trade agreement has been proposed every two years or so, only to be defeated by protectionists and pessimists. Now, however, a new set of geopolitical as well as economic circumstances make such an agreement not only desirable but necessary if the United States and Japan wish to advance their common stake in the future of East Asia. This paper discusses the historical background and the new circumstances that make a free trade agreement increasingly urgent, what such an agreement might look like, including its economic and strategic benefits, and how actors in both countries might respond.
    Napoleoni, Loretta.
  • Modern Jihad: The Islamist Crusade
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Crusades -- Economic aspects.
    • Economics -- Religious aspects -- Islam.
    • War on Terrorism, 2001- -- Economic aspects.
    Abstract:
      This article compares the roots of the medieval Christian Crusades and of the modern Islamist jihad. Focusing on the economics of these two phenomena, the author argues that religion provides a cohesive and convenient identity for a partnership motivated far more by economic factors than by religious fervor. The alliance of the papacy, the nobility, the emerging commercial classes of traders, merchants, and bankers, and the starving peasants of Europe took shape under the banner of the First Crusade as a reaction to the economic hegemony of Islam over the Mediterranean Basin. Similarly, today, religion provides the ideological ground upon which the emerging Muslim classes of traders, merchants, and bankers have built a partnership with the religious leaders and impoverished masses of the Muslim world. This alliance targets the hegemonic domination of the West, strengthened and supported by corrupt Muslim elites and governments. Islamist armed groups, like the Franj knights of the Crusades a thousand years before, are only the vanguard of a war of economic liberation cleverly disguised as a war of religion.

Power and Intervention

    Ottaway, Marina.
    Lacina, Bethany.
  • International Interventions and Imperialism: Lessons from the 1990s
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Intervention (International law)
    • United Nations.
    • World politics -- 1989-
    • United States -- Foreign relations.
    Abstract:
      The increasing frequency and changing nature of UN interventions over the course of the 1990s led to concern over a new imperialism. In this period, the international community showed an increasing willingness to disregard the notion of sovereignty, and thus anticipated the more extreme doctrine of preemptive intervention recently adopted by the Bush administration. But the experience of the 1990s also shows that, far from imposing a new imperial order, international interventions have had a surprisingly limited ability to bring positive transformation to targeted countries, a dilemma that U.S. unilateralist interventions are likely only to aggravate.
    Skrpec, Dagmar.
  • The European and American Reactions to Kosovo: The Policy Divide Revisited in the Iraq War
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • United States -- Military relations -- Europe.
    • Europe -- Military relations -- United States.
    • Kosovo (Serbia) -- History -- Civil War, 1998-1999.
    • Iraq War, 2003.
    Abstract:
      Despite much talk about the new transatlantic rift over the war in Iraq, tensions between the United States and Europe are neither new nor circumstantial, but rather a result of different policy approaches to security situations. This essay examines the U.S.-European dynamic during the Kosovo crisis and illustrates policy tensions resulting from Europe's traditional approach of focusing on process versus the American focus on outcome in resolving security problems. By examining the Kosovo crisis, not only can we draw conclusions about the European-American dynamic over the war in Iraq, but we can also draw broader implications for transatlantic interactions and approaches to future international security threats.
    Beeson, Mark.
  • American Hegemony: The View from Australia
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Australia -- Relations -- United States -- Public opinion.
    • United States -- Relations -- Australia -- Public opinion.
    • Australia -- Public opinion.
    Abstract:
      Australia and the United States have been extremely close allies since World War II. The engagements in Afghanistan and Iraq have continued this tradition. Yet even before the bombings in Bali and the confrontation with Iraq, an important debate about the costs and benefits of the relationship with the United States was underway in Australia. At a number of levels—economic, political, and even strategic—increasing numbers of Australians were critically reassessing the relationship and questioning the supposed benefits. Recent events have accelerated this process and thrown the relationship into even starker relief. This paper argues that the increasingly unilateral nature of American economic and strategic policy is imposing major costs on even its most loyal allies, a situation that threatens to undermine the legitimacy of, and support for, U.S. hegemony.

Colonial Legacies

    Misra, Maria.
  • Lessons of Empire: Britain and India
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • India -- Civilization -- British influences.
    • India -- Politics and government -- 1765-1947.
    • Great Britain -- Relations -- India.
    • India -- Relations -- Great Britain.
    Abstract:
      Recent interest in nineteenth-century European colonialism as a model for promoting state-building and development in parts of the contemporary Third World has rehabilitated the idea of imperialism. Proponents of this imperialism as state-building idea have pointed to the British Raj in India as proof of empire's positive legacy. But the latest historical research does not support this view of the Raj as an agent of centralization, economic development, and secularism. Current research suggests that, if anything, the British promoted the "traditionalization" of India, halting many of the indigenous impulses toward modernization present in the late eighteenth century. Moreover, this legacy continues to play itself out in the political and economic problems of contemporary South Asia. In particular, the legacy of the colonial tendency to rigidify and, in some cases to create, a set of fragmented and competitive group identities has seriously impeded the achievement of an integrated state, full liberal democracy, and a successful economy. These problems were neither the result of specific conditions in India, nor of mere policy errors by the British, but are the likely consequence of any imperial relationship, making imperialism an inappropriate model for even the best-intentioned contemporary state-builder.
    Chafer, Tony.
  • France and Senegal: The End of the Affair?
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • France -- Relations -- Senegal.
    • Senegal -- Relations -- France.
    Abstract:
      Links between Senegal and France go back more than three centuries. Senegal was France's oldest colony in black Africa, and the two countries have maintained the close ties developed during the colonial period since political independence in 1960. The article argues that decolonization in fact reinforced the ties between Senegal and France, rather than the opposite, and that this "special relationship" is only now changing. Senegal has recently begun to diversify its foreign relations, both within Africa and elsewhere. President Abdoulaye Wade, who won the 2000 presidential election and whose party now controls the government, has sought closer relations notably with Washington but also with London. As one of the leading promoters of the New Partnership for African Development, Wade has also sought to build stronger links within Africa, particularly with South Africa and Nigeria. The days of the Franco-Senegalese "special relationship" appear to be numbered.

Cultural Globalization

    Elteren, Mel van.
  • U.S. Cultural Imperialism: Today Only a Chimera
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Politics and culture.
    • United States -- Relations -- Foreign countries.
    Abstract:
      After revisiting the notion of "cultural imperialism" and reclaiming its valuable components, the article focuses on the most significant aspects of U.S. cultural imperialism in the current era of globalization. It goes beyond media imperialism to examine other domains of U.S. cultural influence at the heart of capitalist globalization, including business culture, management and labor practices, and cultural and political "development policies." Recognizing two levels of meaning associated with the ideas and practices distributed from the United States to the rest to the world, the author posits the sustained dominance of the first level, that is, the culture of consumerism. U.S. cultural imperialism as understood here—ultimately seen as a predominantly negative phenomenon from the perspective of self-determination by local people—is neither essential for, nor inherent to, globalization, but a contingent form of the global diffusion of consumerist beliefs and practices.
    Ritzer, George.
  • The Globalization of Nothing
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Globalization.
    Abstract:
      Globalization is not a singular process with uniform results, but a term that encompasses a number of transnational processes. This essay distinguishes between two broad sub-processes under the larger heading of globalization—glocalization (the integration of the global and the local) and grobalization (the imposition of the global on the local). It also explores the distinction between nothing (forms that are centrally conceived and controlled and largely lacking in distinctive content) and something (forms that are indigenously conceived and controlled and comparatively rich in distinctive content). The article focuses on two pairings that result from relating these sets of concepts—the grobalization of nothing and the glocalization of something. In the realm of culture in general and consumption in particular, the conflict between these two processes is a central issue in the world today. The triumph of the grobalization of nothing promises cultural homogeneity, while the glocalization of something offers at least some hope for cultural heterogeneity in a world in which the truly local has almost entirely disappeared.

Reviews

    Szabo, Stephen F.
  • In Search of a New Grand Strategy
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Kupchan, Charles. End of the American era: U.S. foreign policy and the geopolitics of the twenty-first century.
    • United States -- Foreign relations.
    Kuchins, Andrew.
  • What Russians Think About Foreign Policy
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Zimmerman, William, 1936- Russian people and foreign policy: Russian elite and mass perspectives, 1993-2000.
    • Elite (Social sciences) -- Russia (Federation)
    Lyon, Philip W.
  • Words of War: Journalism in the Former Yugoslavia
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Kurspahic, Kemal, 1946- Prime time crime: Balkan media in war and peace.
    • Yugoslav War, 1991-1995 -- Journalists.

Recent Books

    Khoe, Richard B.
  • China's New Rulers: The Secret Files (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Nathan, Andrew J. (Andrew James) China's new rulers: the secret files.
    • Gilley, Bruce, 1966-
    • China -- Politics and government -- 1976-
    Duffy, Tim.
  • At Home Abroad: Identity and Power in American Foreign Policy (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Nau, Henry R., 1941- At home abroad: identity and power in American foreign policy.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1989-
    Konstantinidis, Charalambos.
  • Open Networks, Closed Regimes: The Impact of the Internet on Authoritarian Rule, and: Democracy and the Internet: Allies or Adversaries? (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Kalathil, Shanthi. Open networks, closed regimes: the impact of the Internet on authoritarian rule.
    • Boas, Taylor C.
    • Simon, Leslie David. Democracy and the Internet: allies or adversaries?
    • Corrales, Javier, 1966-
    • Wolfensberger, Donald R.
    • Authoritarianism -- Case studies.
    • Internet -- Political aspects -- Case studies.



[Project MUSE] [Search Page] [Journals] [Journal Directory] [Top]