Indians of North America -- Violence against -- Pennsylvania -- History -- 18th century.
Rhetoric -- Political aspects -- Pennsylvania -- History -- 18th century.
In the winter of 1763, dozens of Western Pennsylvanians calling themselves the Paxton Boys murdered 21 Native Americans, a politically charged action that nearly embroiled the colony in civil war and altered the colony's election in 1764. This essay examines the Paxton Boys' justifications and also the failed rhetorical strategies developed by Quakers for defending Native Americans. . . As the Paxton Boys demonstrated the interrelationship between colonial violence and rhetoric, they set the precedent for future violence targeting Native Americans in Pennsylvania and beyond.
Catholic Church. National Conference of Catholic Bishops. Bishops' Committee on Marriage and Family. Always our children: a pastoral message to parents of homosexual children and suggestions for pastoral ministers.
Rhetoric -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church.
Homosexuality -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church.
This essay examines the Catholic Church's pastoral letter on homosexuality, Always Our Children. While its primary audience was the parents of gays and lesbians, the letter also had to address gay and lesbian Catholics and conservative bishops. A key task for the letter was acquiring the imprimatur, or silent assent, of bishops. The letter used three strategies to attain this assent: strict definition of purpose, an almost exclusive use of previous institutional rhetoric as supporting material, and the deflection of responsibility for the issue at hand onto outside groups. The letter ultimately failed to persuade its audiences and was revised because of tensions in its characterization of gays and lesbians.
This essay interrogates "conversation," "dialogue," and the language of therapy as framing devices for various public deliberative processes in the 1990s and since. Although "conversation" and "dialogue" are often trumpeted as a means to restore civility, egalitarianism, and community into the public sphere, this essay argues that these communication modes, coupled with the language of therapy in which they frequently have been couched, are problematic as paradigms for conflict and problem resolution on public issues. The essay argues, first, that a conversational model for deliberation may impede rather than further democratic goals, and, second, that conversation may function as a therapeutic substitute for policy formation necessary to remedy social ills.
Hirohito, Emperor of Japan, 1901- -- Public opinion.
Public opinion -- United States.
Rhetoric -- Political aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
During World War II, American public observers debated the Japanese emperor's political and social role, his culpability in Japanese "aggression," and his proper status in the postwar settlement. Reflecting broader themes and developments of war and diplomacy, the focus of this discussion shifted at various points between December 1941 and August 1945, alternating between different levels of hostility toward the emperor. Though this public debate was often prominent in the minds of U.S. officials, the effects of the discussion on American policy were uneven. This being the case, the emperor question provides an excellent opportunity to study the complex relationship between rhetoric, policy, and public opinion.