Philosophy Psychiatry and Psychology

Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology
Volume 10, Number 2, June 2003

CONTENTS

Feature Article

    Read, Rupert J., 1966-
  • Literature as Philosophy of Psychopathology: William Faulkner as Wittgenstein
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    Subject Headings:
    • Faulkner, William, 1897-1962. Sound and the fury.
    • Schizophrenia in literature.
    • Schizophrenics -- Language.
    • Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1889-1951.
    Abstract:
      I argue that the language of some schizophrenic persons is akin to the language of Benjy in Williams Faulkner's novel The Sound and the Fury, in one crucial respect: Faulkner displays to us language that, ironically, cannot be translated or interpreted into sense . . . without irreducible 'loss' or 'garbling.' The same is true of famous schizophrenic writers, such as Renee and Schreber. Such 'garbling' is of an odd kind, admittedly: it is a garbling that inadvisably turns nonsense into sense. . . . Faulkner's language is a language of paradox, of nonsense masquerading beautifully as sense. When this language works, it generates the powerful illusion that we can make sense of the 'life-world' of a young child or an 'idiot'—or a sufferer from chronic schizophrenia. But this remains, contrary to Louis Sass's claims, an illusion.

      Thus, drawing on the thinking of Wittgenstein (his On Certainty, especially, with its incisive critique of the very idea of being able to make claims or statements from within a sufficiently altered [non]state of mind) and of the Wittgensteinian literary critic James Guetti (who critiques the very idea of 'deranged language' being paraphrased into sense), I argue that the most impenetrable cases of schizophrenia may be cases not of a sense being made that we cannot grasp, nor of a different form of life, but, despite appearances, of no sense, no form of life, at all. This is an option that has not really been considered in the literature of/on psychopathology to date. And it can be tentatively established, not through a dubious scientism, but through a careful attention to the literature of the insane and the literature of Modernism.

    Keywords:
      Sass, Guetti, schizophrenia, Benjy, Schreber, The Sound and the Fury.

Commentaries

    Sass, Louis Arnorsson.
  • Incomprehensibility and Understanding: On the Interpretation of Severe Mental Illness
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    Subject Headings:
    • Read, Rupert J., 1966- Literature as philosophy of psychopathology: William Faulkner as Wittgenstein.
    • Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1889-1951. Tractatus logico-philosophicus.
    • Schizophrenics -- Language.
    • Psychology and philosophy.
    Keywords:
      hermeneutics, psychopathology, paradox, Wittgenstein, solipsism, delusion, principle of charity, phenomenological psychopathology.
    Coetzee, J. M., 1940-
  • Fictional Beings
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    Subject Headings:
    • Read, Rupert J., 1966- Literature as philosophy of psychopathology: William Faulkner as Wittgenstein.
    • Faulkner, William, 1897-1962. Sound and the fury.
    • Schizophrenia in literature.
    • Fictitious characters.
    Read, Rupert J., 1966-
  • On Delusions of Sense: A Response to Coetzee and Sass
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    Subject Headings:
    • Sass, Louis Arnorsson. Incomprehensibility and understanding: On the interpretation of severe mental illness.
    • Coetzee, J. M., 1940- Fictional beings.
    • Faulkner, William, 1897-1962. Sound and the fury.
    • Schizophrenia in literature.
    • Psychology and philosophy.
    Keywords:
      schizophrenia, Wittgenstein, Schreber, Faulkner, Benjy, grammar, madness, Cogito

Feature Article

    Matthews, Steve, 1961-
  • Establishing Personal Identity in Cases of DID
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    Subject Headings:
    • Multiple personality.
    • Identity (Psychology)
    • Criminal liability.
    Abstract:
      In some recent criminal cases in the United States a defense has been mounted based on an affliction known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (formerly Multiple Personality Disorder). The crux of the defense rests on the proposition that a dominant personality was incapable of appreciating the nature and quality of wrongfulness of conduct caused by an alter personality. This defense has been successful in some cases, but not others, and so philosophers, lawyers, and psychiatrists are now in debate in an attempt to clarify the issues. One of the salient issues involves the question of personal identity between the individual who allegedly committed the offense and the individual who stands accused. Stephen Behnke and Walter Sinnott-Armstrong have recently put forward a test for establishing personal identity in these cases. In this discussion, I present reasons for rejecting their proposal.
    Keywords:
      dissociation, identity, person, responsibility, memory, personality.

Commentaries

    Braude, Stephen E., 1945-
  • Counting Persons and Living With Alters: Comments on Matthews
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    Subject Headings:
    • Matthews, Steve, 1961- Establishing personal identity in cases of DID.
    • Multiple personality.
    • Identity (Psychology)
    Keywords:
      dissociation; multiple personality, person, responsibility.
    Clark, Stephen R. L.
  • Constructing Persons: The Psychopathology of Identity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Matthews, Steve, 1961- Establishing personal identity in cases of DID.
    • Multiple personality.
    • Identity (Psychology)
    • Criminal liability.
    Keywords:
      identity, legal fictions, materialism, psychopathology.
    Deeley, Peter Q.
  • Social, Cognitive, and Neural Constraints on Subjectivity and Agency: Implications for Dissociative Identity Disorder
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    Subject Headings:
    • Matthews, Steve, 1961- Establishing personal identity in cases of DID.
    • Multiple personality.
    • Identity (Psychology)
    • Criminal liability.
    Matthews, Steve, 1961-
  • Blaming Agents and Excusing Persons: The Case of DID
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    Subject Headings:
    • Braude, Stephen E., 1945- Counting persons and living with alters: Comments on Matthews.
    • Clark, Stephen R. L. Constructing persons: The psychopathology of identity.
    • Deeley, Peter Q. Social, cognitive, and neural constraints on subjectivity and agency: Implications for Dissociative Identity Disorder.
    • Multiple personality.
    • Identity (Psychology)
    • Criminal liability.
    Keywords:
      dissociation, identity, person, agency, responsibility

Feature Article

    Ciocchetti, Christopher.
  • The Responsibility of the Psychopathic Offender
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    Subject Headings:
    • Psychopaths.
    • Responsibility.
    • Insanity -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Abstract:
      In this paper, I argue that the responsibility affecting defect of psychopaths is their incapacity for responding to acts within relationships. I begin with Piers Benn's account of psychopaths as incapable of forming participant reactive attitudes. Benn argues that participant reactive attitudes are essentially communicative and the ability to form and understand participant reactive attitudes is crucial to being a member of the moral community. Against Benn, I argue that, although participant reactive attitudes can be communicative, they are not essentially communicative. Instead, they can be simply expressive. Therefore, we must consider psychopaths members of the moral community in Benn's sense; however, psychopaths fail to interpret their actions as part of relationships. This inability renders punishment, as an attempt to rectify wrong relationships, inappropriate for psychopaths. Psychopaths have diminished responsibility, insofar as they have forfeited some rights by committing an offense, but are not appropriate candidates for punishment because they cannot understand its significance.
    Keywords:
      Moral responsibility, reactive attitudes, emotions, punishment, relationships.

Commentaries

    Adshead, Gwen.
  • Measuring Moral Identities: Psychopaths and Responsibility
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ciocchetti, Christopher. Responsibility of the psychopathic offender.
    • Psychopaths.
    • Responsibility.
    • Insanity -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Benn, Piers.
  • The Responsibility of the Psychiatric Offender: Commentary on Ciocchetti
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ciocchetti, Christopher. Responsibility of the psychopathic offender.
    • Psychopaths.
    • Responsibility.
    • Insanity -- Moral and ethical aspects.
    Shuman, Daniel W.
  • A Comment on Christopher Ciocchetti: "The Responsibility of the Psychopathic Offender"
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ciocchetti, Christopher. Responsibility of the psychopathic offender.
    • Psychopaths.
    • Responsibility.
    • Criminal liability.
    Ciocchetti, Christopher.
  • Some Thoughts on Diverse Psychopathic Offenders and Legal Responsibility
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    Subject Headings:
    • Adshead, Gwen. Measuring moral identities: Psychopaths and responsibilty.
    • Benn, Piers. Responsibility of the psychiatric offender: A comment on Ciocchetti.
    • Shuman, Daniel W. Comment on Christopher Ciocchetti: "The responsibility of the psychopathic offender".
    • Psychopaths.
    • Responsibility.
    • Criminal liability.

About the Authors

Concurrent Contents

  • Concurrent Contents: Recent and Classic References at the Interface of Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology
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    Subject Headings:
    • Philosophy -- Bibliography.
    • Psychiatry -- Bibliography.
    • Psychology -- Bibliography.

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