Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient
human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are
informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic
and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental
factors.The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have
differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences
in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability
of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity
includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans
and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research
include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient
remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology:
whether an observed tissue change is an antemortem pathologic lesion
or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the
application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology
to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer.
Petr Alekseyevich Kropotkin (1842-1921) and Vero Copner
Wynne-Edwards (1906-1997) developed evolutionary theories that emphasized
social groups and cooperation rather than the organism-level natural
selection of standard Darwinian theory. The most important reason
for their alternative interpretations was their experience as field
naturalists. Kropotkin and Wynne-Edwards worked in arctic environments
and were impressed by aspects of the natural world that differed
significantly from those experienced by Darwin or Wallace. These field
experiences led to their emphasis on mutual aid and group selection,
respectively. Understanding the development of their theories helps
to illuminate the continuing debates over evolutionary theory and the
current resurgence of interest in group selection.
Washington University (Saint Louis, Mo.). School of Medicine.
Medical education -- Missouri -- Saint Louis.
A physician who was a medical student and resident in the
1930s at the Washington University School of Medicine recalls many of
the remarkable professors who were recruited after Abraham Flexner had
recommended a complete reorganization of the school in 1910, and who
shaped the development of the school. Each of these individuals pioneered
developments that shaped the research, clinical, and organizational
advances of medicine in the 20th century. More than 60 years after
graduation, the recollections rekindle the excitement and fun of medical
education during that period.
New ideas in science frequently arise from neglected or
distorted antecedents.This essay deals with the idea of biochemical
unity, encapsulated in Jacques Monod's well-known phrase, dating from
1954: "Anything found to be true of E. coli must also be true of
elephants." An earlier version of this phrase,—"From the elephant
to butyric acid bacterium—it is all the same!"—was coined in
1926 by the Dutch microbiologist Albert Jan Kluyver. In that year Kluyver
and his associate Hendrick Jean Louis Donker published a celebrated
paper, "Unity in Biochemistry."The concept of biochemical unity had many
antecedents, but these had never caught on. The Kluyver-Donker paper has
often been regarded to provide a boost to biochemical and especially to
microbiological thinking. Its interpretations and misinterpretations
represent an encapsulated history of biochemistry. The present paper
examines the history of the concept of biochemical unity from before
to beyond Kluyver, investigates the two "elephant" phrases and their
possible relationships, and ends with a discussion of the attractiveness
of unifying ideas in science.
Carrel, Alexis, 1873-1944 -- Political and social views.
In the 1970s, Paris and many other French cities named streets
in honor of Alexis Carrel, the French physician, scientist, and Nobel
laureate. Controversy erupted in the 1990s, when Carrel's right-wing
political views were espoused by the National Front party. Honors such
as street names require not only respected contributions to society,
but also high standards of personal conduct. Paris has recently followed
the lead of other French cities and has voted to remove Carrel's name
from its streets.
Fox, Renée C. (Renée Claire), 1928-
Swazey, Judith P.
The clinical trial of the AbioCor artificial heart, initiated
in July 2001 and still in process, has taken place within a matrix of
social and cultural patterns that are both "old" and new." The old
patterns—those that have accompanied previous clinical trials
of other vital artificial organs and transplantation in the United
States—include "experiment perilous," and courage, heroism,
and pioneering themes; "right stuff" motifs; "Americana" symbols;
allusions to the meaning of the human heart; connections with a for-profit
corporation; and the occurrence of moratoriums. New patterns—those
more particular and distinctive to the AbioCor trial—involve the
restrictions imposed on releasing information about the post-operative
clinical status of the implant recipients; the quasi-institutionalization
of a patient advocacy system to represent patient-subjects and their
families; and the "crises of success" that were encountered when several
of the AbioCor recipients survived longer than expected. In certain
instances, old and new patterns have been combined—for example, in
some of the idiosyncratic features of the AbioCor-associated lawsuit that
has resulted in part from the problem of the "therapeutic misconception,"
the belief that an experimental intervention is actually intended to be
A unique public/private partnership situated around a
pharmaceutical, Merck's Mectizan® donation program
stands out as an example of corporate philanthropy in the history of the
pharmaceutical industry and provides insight into future public/private
partnerships in public health. This paper considers the issues Merck faced
in the decision to donate Mectizan (ivermectin) and in the subsequent
development of the Mectizan donation program, delineating the moral and
financial debates that arose within the company. Coming after almost
15 years of donation, this assessment of the program's strengths and
shortcomings suggests how the pharmaceutical industry can better serve
as a viable partner in improving international health.
Pre-Holocaust German art celebrates the doctor as a hero,
triumphant over disease and poor hygiene. It emphasizes the ontological
conception of disease and the ability of medicine to cure pathology or
remove it. Some New Objectivity artists question this conceptualization
by pushing it to the extreme of realistic representations. However,
the clinical encounter has virtually disappeared from post-Holocaust
art. Medicine is depicted in three main ways: as an ambiguous and
alien Faustian craft; with a focus on holistic notions of healing,
thus avoiding biomedicine altogether; or with a focus on the subjective
experience of illness, thus ignoring the interaction between medicine
and the diseased person.
Jiang, Tao, 1963-, ed. Current topics in computational molecular biology.
Xu, Ying, 1960-, ed.
Zhang, Michael Q., ed.
Lengauer, T. (Thomas), ed. Bioinformatics: from genomes to drugs.
Molecular biology -- Mathematics.
Glasgow, Sara M.
The Health of Nations: Infectious Disease, Environmental Change, and Their Effects on National Security and Development, and: Plagues and Politics: Infectious Disease and International Policy (review) [Access article in HTML][Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Price-Smith, Andrew T. Health of nations: infectious disease, environmental change, and their effects on national security and development.
Price-Smith, Andrew T., ed. Plagues and politics: infectious disease and international policy.