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Perspectives in Biology and Medicine

Vol. 1 (1957) through current issue (with gaps in vols. 22, 23)

Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, an interdisciplinary scholarly journal whose readers include biologists, physicians, students, and scholars, publishes essays that place important biological or medical subjects in broader scientific, social, or humanistic contexts. These essays span a wide range of subjects, from biomedical topics such as neurobiology, genetics, and evolution, to topics in ethics, history, philosophy, and medical education and practice. The editors encourage an informal style that has literary merit and that preserves the warmth, excitement, and color of the biological and medical sciences.

Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press

Volume 57, 2014

Volume 56, 2013

Volume 55, 2012

Volume 54, 2011

Volume 53, 2010

Volume 52, 2009

Volume 51, 2008

Volume 50, 2007

Volume 49, 2006

Volume 48, 2005

Volume 47, 2004

Volume 46, 2003

Volume 45, 2002

Volume 44, 2001

Volume 43, 2000

Volume 42, 1999

Volume 41, 1998

Volume 40, 1997

Volume 39, 1996

Volume 38, 1995

Volume 37, 1994

Volume 36, 1993

Volume 35, 1992

Volume 34, 1991

Volume 33, 1990

Volume 32, 1989

Volume 31, 1988

Volume 30, 1987

Volume 29, 1986

Volume 28, 1985

Volume 27, 1984

Volume 26, 1983

Volume 25,1982

Volume 24, 1981

Volume 23, 1980

Volume 22, 1979

Volume 21, 1978

Volume 20, 1977

Volume 19, 1976

Volume 18, 1975

Volume 17, 1974

Volume 16, 1973

Volume 15, 1972

Volume 14, 1971

Volume 13, 1970

Volume 12, 1969

Volume 11, 1968

Volume 10, 1967

Volume 9, 1966

Volume 8, 1965

Volume 7, 1964

Volume 6, 1963

Volume 5, 1962

Volume 4, 1961

Volume 3, 1960

Volume 2, 1959

Volume 1, 1958


E-ISSN: 1529-8795
Print ISSN: 0031-5982

Calls for Papers

Volume 56, Number 1, Winter 2013

Call for Papers

EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS ON MEDICAL PRACTICE AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Health systems and practitioners in many countries have adopted the Electronic Health Record (EHR) over the past two decades. Incentives and penalties that are tied to the EHR were included in the 2010 health legislation in the United States. Several European countries, where the EHR has been in use longer, have recently modified their approaches to the EHR in light of their experiences. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine plans to publish in late 2012 papers that discuss aspects of the EHR.The Editors would like to solicit manuscripts on:

  • Intended and unintended consequences of the EHR on the patient's relationship with the clinician;
  • Effects of the EHR on the clinical encounter, especially changes in recording and evaluating the history and other narrative information;
  • Underlying assumptions about the value of the EHR and rationale for its use, with particular attention to effects on quality of care, outcomes, economics, and risk management;
  • Changes caused by the EHR in the clinician's cognitive tasks, problemsolving ability, and communications;
  • Challenges to privacy and confidentiality;
  • Effects on clinical research and health services research;
  • Social network effects caused by the EHR and by the clinical use of ubiquitous devices (such as mobile tablet computers and phones);
  • Speculation about the future of the EHR, i.e., how it may evolve as technology changes and penetration occurs to most clinical settings.

The Editors would welcome all rigorous discussions on related topics, including those that are anecdotal or quantitative, both reviews and original reports. Please contact Hamilton Moses, III,MD, Co-Editor (hm3@jhmi.edu) or via the journal website (editors_pbm@press.jhu.edu) as soon as possible providing information about your proposed article, including planned title, authors and (if possible) an abstract.The anticipated deadline for receipt of completed manuscripts will be July 1, 2012.

Editorial Board

Volume 57, Number 2, Spring 2014

Acting Editor

William M. Breichner

Managing Editor

Solveig C. Robinson

Advisory Board

Christian de Duve, Brussels

Roger Guillemin, San Diego

Elwood Jensen, Cincinnati

Robert L. Kroc, Santa Barbara

Editors Emeriti

Richard L. Landau

Robert L. Perlman

Alan N. Schechter

Editorial Intern

Jennifer Arbaugh

Editorial Board

Martin J. Blaser, New York

Allan M. Brandt, Boston

Gert H. Brieger, Baltimore

Donald A. Chambers, Chicago

Paul W. Ewald, Louisville

Anne Fausto-Sterling, Providence

Renée C. Fox, Philadelphia

Walter B. Gratzer, London

John Lantos, Chicago

Edward F. McCarthy, Baltimore

Paul R. McHugh, Baltimore

Martha Montello, Kansas City

Benno Müller-Hill, Köln

Sherwin Nuland, New Haven

Judith L. Rapoport, Bethesda

Lainie Friedman Ross, Chicago

Arthur Rubenstein, Philadelphia

Alfred I. Tauber, Boston

Delese Wear, Rootstown

Kenneth M. Weiss, University Park

Volume 57, Number 1, Winter 2014

Acting Editor

William M. Breichner

Managing Editor

Solveig C. Robinson

Advisory Board

Christian de Duve, Brussels

Roger Guillemin, San Diego

Elwood Jensen, Cincinnati

Robert L. Kroc, Santa Barbara

Editors Emeriti

Richard L. Landau

Robert L. Perlman

Alan N. Schechter

Editorial Intern

Jennifer Arbaugh

Editorial Board

Martin J. Blaser, New York

Allan M. Brandt, Boston

Gert H. Brieger, Baltimore

Donald A. Chambers, Chicago

Paul W. Ewald, Louisville

Anne Fausto-Sterling, Providence

Renée C. Fox, Philadelphia

Walter B. Gratzer, London

John Lantos, Chicago

Edward F. McCarthy, Baltimore

Paul R. McHugh, Baltimore

Martha Montello, Kansas City

Benno Müller-Hill, Köln

Sherwin Nuland, New Haven

Judith L. Rapoport, Bethesda

Lainie Friedman Ross, Chicago

Arthur Rubenstein, Philadelphia

Alfred I. Tauber, Boston

Delese Wear, Rootstown

Kenneth M. Weiss, University Park

Volume 46, Number 4, Autumn 2003

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 46, Number 3, Summer 2003

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 46, Number 3 Supplement, Summer 2003

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 46, Number 2, Spring 2003

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 46, Number 1, Winter 2003

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 45, Number 4, Autumn 2002

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 45, Number 3, Summer 2002

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 45, Number 2, Spring 2002

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 45, Number 1, Winter 2002

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $40.00; students, 1 year $35.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $96.00. Canada and Mexico add $6.00. Other countries add $12.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $29.00. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 44, Number 4, Autumn 2001

    Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau

    Book Editors:

    Morton Arnsdorf

    Associate Editors:

    Clifford W. Gurney
    Ronald Singer

    Managing Editor:

    Solveig C. Robinson

    Advisory Board:

    Charlotte Auerbach Edinburgh
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    C. di Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Hamburg
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York

    Editorial Board:

    Daniel A. Albert Chicago
    Nobuyuki Amino Osaka
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Douglas Black London
    K. M. Brinkhous Chapel Hill
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    James M. Gustafson Atlanta
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Robert J. Joynt Rochester
    Maclyn McCarty New York
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    James V. Neel Ann Arbor
    C. J. V. Nossal Melbourne
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda
    M. G. P. Stoker London
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editorial Office, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Culver Hall 404, 1025 East 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor: THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster: Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates, U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each yearŐs subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved. No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please con-tact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2001 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 44, Number 3, Summer 2001

    Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau

    Book Editors:

    Morton Arnsdorf

    Associate Editors:

    Clifford W. Gurney
    Ronald Singer

    Managing Editor:

    Solveig C. Robinson

    Advisory Board:

    Charlotte Auerbach Edinburgh
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    C. di Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Hamburg
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York

    Editorial Board:

    Daniel A. Albert Chicago
    Nobuyuki Amino Osaka
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Douglas Black London
    K. M. Brinkhous Chapel Hill
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    James M. Gustafson Atlanta
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Robert J. Joynt Rochester
    Maclyn McCarty New York
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    James V. Neel Ann Arbor
    C. J. V. Nossal Melbourne
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda
    M. G. P. Stoker London
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editorial Office, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Culver Hall 404, 1025 East 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor: THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster: Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates, U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each yearŐs subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved. No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please con-tact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2001 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 44, Number 2, Spring 2001

    Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau

    Book Editors:

    Morton Arnsdorf

    Associate Editors:

    Clifford W. Gurney
    Ronald Singer

    Managing Editor:

    Solveig C. Robinson

    Advisory Board:

    Charlotte Auerbach Edinburgh
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    C. di Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Hamburg
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York

    Editorial Board:

    Daniel A. Albert Chicago
    Nobuyuki Amino Osaka
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Douglas Black London
    K. M. Brinkhous Chapel Hill
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    James M. Gustafson Atlanta
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Robert J. Joynt Rochester
    Maclyn McCarty New York
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    James V. Neel Ann Arbor
    C. J. V. Nossal Melbourne
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda
    M. G. P. Stoker London
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editorial Office, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Culver Hall 404, 1025 East 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor: THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster: Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates, U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each yearŐs subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved. No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please con-tact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2001 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 44, Number 1, Winter 2001

    Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau

    Book Editors:

    Morton Arnsdorf

    Associate Editors:

    Clifford W. Gurney
    Ronald Singer

    Managing Editor:

    Solveig C. Robinson

    Advisory Board:

    Charlotte Auerbach Edinburgh
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    C. di Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Hamburg
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York

    Editorial Board:

    Daniel A. Albert Chicago
    Nobuyuki Amino Osaka
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Douglas Black London
    K. M. Brinkhous Chapel Hill
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    James M. Gustafson Atlanta
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Robert J. Joynt Rochester
    Maclyn McCarty New York
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    James V. Neel Ann Arbor
    C. J. V. Nossal Melbourne
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda
    M. G. P. Stoker London
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editorial Office, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Culver Hall 404, 1025 East 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor: THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster: Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates, U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each yearŐs subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved. No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please con-tact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2001 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 43, Number 4, Summer 2000

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 43, Number 3, Spring 2000

    Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau

    Book Editors:

    Morton Arnsdorf

    Associate Editors:

    Clifford W. Gurney
    Ronald Singer

    Managing Editor:

    Solveig C. Robinson

    Advisory Board:

    Charlotte Auerbach Edinburgh
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    C. di Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Hamburg
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York

    Editorial Board:

    Daniel A. Albert Chicago
    Nobuyuki Amino Osaka
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Douglas Black London
    K. M. Brinkhous Chapel Hill
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    James M. Gustafson Atlanta
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Robert J. Joynt Rochester
    Maclyn McCarty New York
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    James V. Neel Ann Arbor
    C. J. V. Nossal Melbourne
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda
    M. G. P. Stoker London
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editorial Office, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Culver Hall 404, 1025 East 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor: THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster: Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates, U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each yearŐs subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved. No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please con-tact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 43, Number 2, Winter 2000

    Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau

    Book Editors:

    Morton Arnsdorf

    Associate Editors:

    Clifford W. Gurney
    Ronald Singer

    Managing Editor:

    Solveig C. Robinson

    Advisory Board:

    Charlotte Auerbach Edinburgh
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    C. di Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Hamburg
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York

    Editorial Board:

    Daniel A. Albert Chicago
    Nobuyuki Amino Osaka
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Douglas Black London
    K. M. Brinkhous Chapel Hill
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    James M. Gustafson Atlanta
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Robert J. Joynt Rochester
    Maclyn McCarty New York
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    James V. Neel Ann Arbor
    C. J. V. Nossal Melbourne
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda
    M. G. P. Stoker London
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editorial Office, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Culver Hall 404, 1025 East 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor: THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster: Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates, U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each yearŐs subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved. No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please con-tact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

Volume 43, Number 1, Autumn 1999

    Editor:

    Book Review Editor:

    Robert L. Perlman
    Richard L. Landau
    Morton Arnsdorf
      

    Associate Editor:

    Managing Editor:

    Alan N. Schechter Bethesda Solveig C. Robinson
      

    Advisory Board:

     
    Baruch Blumberg Philadelphia
    Christian de Duve Brussels
    Roger Guillemin San Diego
    Elwood Jensen Stockholm
    Robert L. Kroc Santa Barbara
    Rosalyn S. Yalow New York
      

    Editorial Board:

     
    Daniel A. Albert Philadelphia
    William S. Beck Boston
    Paul B. Beeson Seattle
    Bryan P. Bergeron Boston
    Douglas Black London
    Gert H. Brieger Baltimore
    Donald Chambers Chicago
    Paul W. Ewald Amherst
    Anne Fausto-Sterling Providence
    Nina Fedoroff University Park
    Renee Fox Philadelphia
    Walter B. Gratzer London
    Clifford W. Gurney Gainesville
    Stewart Hulse Baltimore
    Paul R. McHugh Baltimore
    Victor A. McKusick Baltimore
    Martha Montello Kansas City
    Benno Müller-Hill Köln
    Sherwin Nuland New Haven
    Alan L. Pearlman St. Louis
    T. N. Pullman Chicago
    Arthur Rubenstein New York
    Ronald Singer Chicago
    Alfred I. Tauber Boston
    Delese Wear Rootstown
    Editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to Dr. Robert Perlman, Editor, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (MC 5058), The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. See "Notes to Contributors" for more information about preparation and submission of manuscripts. Fax: 773-702-9234. Email: r-perlman@uchicago.edu.

    Editorial Sponsor:THE DIVISION OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, The University of Chicago.

    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (ISSN 0031-5982) is published quarterly in Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer by THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    Postmaster:Send address changes to Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363.

    Subscription rates,U.S.A.: individuals, 1 year $39.00; students, 1 year $34.00 (photocopy of valid student ID must accompany subscription); institutions, 1 year $85.00. Other countries add $4.00 for each year's subscription to cover postage. Single copy rates: individuals $12.00, institutions $25.50. (Canadian residents, please add 7% GST to all rates listed above.) Volumes in microfilm available from Bell & Howell Information & Learning, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (800-521-0600 or 734-761-4700). Subscription correspondence should be sent to The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, PO Box 19966, Baltimore, MD 21211-0966. Subscriptions are payable in advance. Please make all remittances payable to THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS.

    All rights reserved.No portion of this journal may be reproduced by any process or technique without the formal consent of The Johns Hopkins University Press. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by The Johns Hopkins University Press for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $8.00 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, 01923. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. 0031-5982/00 $8.00

    Advertising space in Perspectives is available, as is rental of its subscriber list. For information and rates, please contact the advertising sales staff, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Journals Division, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363 (410-516-6988).

    For indexing/abstracting information, see http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pbm.

    Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD, and at additional mailing office.

    © 2000 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.

    This publication is printed on acid-free paper.

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