NCFS: Nineteenth Century French Studies

Nineteenth-Century French Studies
Volume 29, Number 3&4, Spring-Summer 2001


Articles

    Moscovici, Claudia, 1969-
  • Hybridity and Ethics in Chateaubriand's Atala
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Chateaubriand, François-René, vicomte de, 1768-1848. Atala.
    • Hybridity (Social sciences)
    • Ethics in literature.
    Abstract:
      Chateaubriand's Atala asks: what kind of human being is best prepared to represent an ethical attitude toward cultural difference? In raising this issue, Atala challenges the emerging Romantic view, popularized by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that Western and native American cultures are ethical opposites. While beginning Atala with the familiar contrast between savage nature and European culture, by the end of the novel Chateaubriand transforms this polarity into a more complex model of hybrid cultural identity. The hybrid being, Chateaubriand illustrates, is formed by means of a double dialectical narrative process. The allegorical figures of Atala and Chactas incorporate and reject elements of two so-called opposite cultures -- the Spanish and the American Indian -- which they value equally. This essay argues the Chactas's and Atala's simultaneously critical and empathetic perspectives towards Spanish and American Indian societies enables them to negotiate cultural differences without lapsing into moral relativism. (CM)
    Bassan, Fernande.
  • Une Amitié littéraire: Chateaubriand et Dumas père
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Chateaubriand, François-René, vicomte de, 1768-1848 -- Friends and associates.
    • Dumas, Alexandre, 1802-1870 -- Friends and associates.
    Abstract:
      It seems surprising that two writers so far apart could have been friends: they were one generation apart; the first was a member of the nobility, supporter of Catholicism and the Bourbons, while the other - grandson of a Haitian slave - was not pious, and was a Republican. They differed also by their life-styles and careers. When they met in 1832, the older one was at the peak of his glory, while the younger had been famous for only three years. They met for the first time in Lucerne where they were both in temporary exile for political reasons: Chateaubriand had just been detained for two weeks in Paris, wrongly accused of supporting the Duchesse de Berry in a plot to overthrow King Louis-Philippe d'Orléans in favor of her son Henri, heir of the Bourbons; while Dumas had taken part in a Republican demonstration. Chateaubriand invited Dumas, and confessed that he remained faithful to the Bourbons by mere sense of duty, while not approving of their policy. Dumas, honored to be treated with confidence by his famous elder, was in awe to discover that they shared some political views. In 1840, François-René served as witness at the signing of the marriage contract of Alexandre and Ida Ferrier. When Chateaubriand died in 1848, Dumas devoted seven serial articles to his life and works, and noted that even Napoleon(his former enemy) spoke highly of him when he was exiled in Saint-Helena. (In French) (FB)
    Ender, Evelyne, 1955-
  • "Une femme qui rêve n'est pas tout à fait une femme": Lélia en rupture d'identité
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Sand, George, 1804-1876. Lélia.
    • Identity (Psychology) in literature.
    • Women -- Psychology.
    Abstract:
      In the first version of her novel Lélia (1833), George Sand raises the question of a woman's identity to a crisis point by articulating it around the heroine's frigidity. Drawing on the phenomenological work of the philosopher Denise Riley, this article shows that Lélia's condition is symptomatic of a wider historical and philosophical construction of gender differences, which is still visible in Jean-Paul Sartre's discussion of frigidity in Being and Nothingness. Since they are destined to sustain the whole edifice of gender, women must stay in their bodies at all times, and are thus denied the right to dream, or to think. Thus Sand's experimental text dramatizes, in its very pathos and inconclusiveness, a question that has occupied feminist thinkers to this day, namely "which identities are truly viable for women?" (In French) (EE)
    Laporte, Dominique.
  • "Ne m'appelez donc jamais femme auteur": Déconstruction et refus du roman sentimental chez George Sand
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Sand, George, 1804-1876 -- Criticism and interpretation.
    Abstract:
      As soon as she begins to write novels, George Sand distinguishes her works from something that critics run down: women's novelistic literature, read by despised readers (generally women), and considered insipid or incredible. To prevent critics from linking her to female writers, she keeps her male pseudonym, disowns her sentimental stories and write novels where she discredits the novelistic genre. For instance, Jacques (1834), based on sentimental stories written earlier, parodies the style and topics of women's epistolary literature. Also, it criticizes its own novelistic construction, opposes literature and reality, and blames social comedy. (In French) (DL)
    Jamison, Anne Elizabeth, 1969-
  • Any Where Out of this Verse: Baudelaire's Prose Poetics and the Aesthetics of Transgression
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Baudelaire, Charles, 1821-1867 -- Aesthetics.
    • Baudelaire, Charles, 1821-1867 -- Technique.
    Abstract:
      Baudelaire's prose poem form emerges from a productive tension between his verse and critical prose writings. This prose constitutes the textual enactment of an "aesthetics of transgression" which, as articulated in Baudelaire's "Exposition universelle de 1855," locates beauty in the violation rather than application of aesthetic rules and norms. The article recasts Baudelaire's self-contradictory elements as a series of self-violations, performative instances of the "beau bizarre" he valorizes, a process demonstrated through an integrated reading of textual "interpenetrations" within and among "Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe," "La Beauté," "Hymne à la Beauté," and "La Chambre Double." (AJ)
    Billone, Amy Christine, 1972-
  • "Cette Blanche Agonie": Baudelaire, Mallarmé and the Ice of Sound
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Baudelaire, Charles, 1821-1867. Cygne.
    • Mallarmé, Stéphane, 1842-1898. Vierge, le vivace et le bel aujourd'hui.
    Abstract:
      In my paper, I examine the negative trajectory delineated by two famous swan poems: Charles Baudelaire's "Le Cygne" and Stéphane Mallarmé's poem on "Le vierge, le vivace et le bel aujourd'hui." Turning to the swan as a figure for poetic language itself (Cygne/Signe), Baudelaire propels his speaker through an endless chain of images and reflections. Mallarmé's "aujourd'hui," however, situates itself at Baudelaire's one unchanging point of reference: his static "mélancholie." Culminating in the "blanche agonie" of Mallarmé's impotent "fantôme," the swan pendant appears to record the loss of the representational function of figurative language and the retreat of the poetic word into a mute self-reflexivity. However, I argue that negativity ultimately serves as a vehicle through which the modern poet recuperates the very origin whose loss he mourns. (AB)
    Williams, Heather.
  • Mallarmé and the Language of Ideas
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Mallarmé, Stéphane, 1842-1898 -- Language.
    • Mallarmé, Stéphane, 1842-1898. Prose (pour des Esseintes).
    Abstract:
      Stéphane Mallarmé (1842-1898) marks the emergence of a new type of writing. A close reading of his great poem "Prose (pour des Esseintes)" (1885) shows how Mallarmé is moving away from the language of philosophy, represented here by the word "Idées," and toward a new relationship between abstract ideas and poetic textures. The true excitement of Mallarmé's abstract ideas, and his originality, is inseparable from his verbal inventiveness and daring, which finds in poetic textures a new way of working with concepts. (HMW)
    Goulesque, Florence.
  • Impressionnisme poétique chez Marie Krysinska: Esthétique de l'ambiguïté et démarche féministe
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Krysinska, Marie, 1857-1908 -- Aesthetics.
    Abstract:
      Marie Krysinska, Polish-born French woman poet, musician, femme chansonnier, and novelist of the decadent and symbolist period, innovated with free verse and was an active member of turn-of-the-century Parisian literary cabarets. In this article, I am analyzing Krysinska's transposition of impressionistic visions into poetry. In numerous poems gathered in Rythmes pittoresques (1890), Joies errantes (1894), and Intermèdes (1903), Krysinska attempts to capture movement, fleeting moments, mystery, the effects of different lights on a scene, ambiguous realities, reflections, the fusion of elements, and evanescent feminine subjects. Often, the subject falls asleep, as if drugged by scents, sounds, and rhythms, while visions come to life. The unity of all arts and an impressionistic vision of the world reflect a search for the unity of body, emotions, and intellect, which necessitates the disappearance of the subject into a world of dreams. I am raising the question whether or not this instability, this errance between arts, between poetical forms, and between Idéal and reality was a form of emancipation for Marie Krysinska, a bicultural woman poet, whose ambiguity of forms was a claim to renew art and poetry. (In French) (FG)

Book Reviews

General Critical Studies

    Orr, Mary.
  • Poignant Relations: Three Modern French Women (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Allen, James Smith. Poignant relations: three modern French women.
    • Feminism -- France -- History -- 19th century.
    Brosman, Catharine Savage, 1934-
  • Resonant Themes: Literature, History, and the Arts in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Brombert, Victor H. Resonant themes: literature, history, and the arts in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe.
    • Haig, Stirling, ed.
    • European literature -- 19th century -- History and criticism.
    Kalisa, Chantal.
  • Black Venus: Sexualized Savages, Primal Fears and Primitive Narratives in French (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean. Black Venus: sexualized savages, primal fears and primitive narratives in French.
    • French fiction -- 19th century -- History and criticism.
    Kelly, Dorothy, 1952-
  • Eve's Proud Descendants: Four Women Writers and Republican Politics in Nineteenth-Century France (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Walton, Whitney. Eve's proud descendants: four women writers and republican politics in nineteenth-century France.
    • Women -- France -- Social conditions -- 19th century.

Poetry Studies

    Assad, Maria L., 1938-
  • Poetry at Stake: Lyric Aesthetics and the Challenge of Technology (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Noland, Carrie, 1958- Poetry at stake: lyric aesthetics and the challenge of technology.
    • French poetry -- 19th century -- History and criticism.

Art, Culture, History

    Palermo, Charles.
  • Daumier: 1808-1879 (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Daumier, Honoré, 1808-1879. Daumier: 1808-1879.
    • National Gallery of Canada.
    • Daumier, Honoré, 1808-1879 -- Exhibitions.
    Kadish, Doris Y.
  • French Anti-Slavery: The Movement for the Abolition of Slavery in France, 1802-1848 (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Jennings, Lawrence C. French anti-slavery: the movement for the abolition of slavery in France, 1802-1848.
    • Slaves -- Emancipation -- France -- History -- 19th century -- Sources.
    Ribner, Jonathan P.
  • James Tissot: Victorian Life/Modern Love (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Marshall, Nancy Rose. James Tissot: Victorian life/modern love.
    • Warner, Malcolm, 1953-
    • Tissot, James Jacques Joseph, 1836-1902 -- Exhibitions.

Balzac Studies

    Johnson, Warren.
  • Theatre in Balzac's La Comédie humaine (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Dickinson, Linzy Erika. Theatre in Balzac's La comédie humaine.
    • Balzac, Honoré de, 1799-1850. Comédie humaine.

Baudelaire Studies

    Kaplan, Edward K., 1942-
  • Baudelaire's Prose Poems: The Practice and Politics of Irony (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Stephens, Sonya. Baudelaire's prose poems: the practice and politics of irony.
    • Baudelaire, Charles, 1821-1867. Spleen de Paris.

Bertrand Studies

Flaubert Studies

    Wetherill, Peter Michael.
  • Le Papegai et le papelard dans "Un Coeur simple" de Gustave Flaubert (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Le Juez, Brigitte, 1959- Papegai et le papelard dans "Un coeur simple" de Gustave Flaubert.
    • Flaubert, Gustave, 1821-1880. Coeur simple.

Guérin Studies

    Brix, Michel.
  • Maurice de Guérin et le romantisme (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Huet-Brichard, Marie-Catherine, ed. Maurice de Guérin et le romantisme.
    • Guérin, Maurice de, 1810-1839 -- Criticism and interpretation.

Hugo Studies

    Ward, Patricia A., 1940-
  • Lettres (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Hugo, Victor, 1802-1885. Lettres.
    • Schoelcher, Victor, 1804-1893.
    • Gaudon, Jean, ed.
    • Gaudon, Sheila, ed.
    • Hugo, Victor, 1802-1885 -- Correspondence.

Quinet Studies

    Vierne, Simone.
  • Le Mythe romantique de Merlin dans l'oeuvre d'Edgar Quinet (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Bernard-Griffiths, S. (Simone) Mythe romantique de Merlin dans l'oeuvre d'Edgar Quinet.
    • Quinet, Edgar, 1803-1875 -- Criticism and interpretation.

Sainte-Beuve Studies

    Verona, Roxana M.
  • La Poésie de Sainte-Beuve: Un Imaginaire de l'échec (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Huet-Brichard, Marie-Catherine. Poésie de Sainte-Beuve: un imaginaire de l'échec.
    • Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin, 1804-1869 -- Poetic works.

Sand Studies

    Naginski, Isabelle Hoog, 1944-
  • Gender in the Fiction of George Sand (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Massardier-Kenney, Françoise. Gender in the fiction of George Sand.
    • Sand, George, 1804-1876 -- Criticism and interpretation.

Taine Studies

    Goetz, Thomas H., 1936-
  • The Artificial Self: The Psychology of Hippolyte Taine (review)
    [Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Nias, Hilary. Artificial self: the psychology of Hippolyte Taine.
    • Taine, Hippolyte, 1828-1893 -- Psychology.



[Project MUSE] [Search Page] [Journals] [Journal Directory] [Top]