NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture 16.2 (2008) 93-106

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John "Jack Quinn" Picus
Not Polish, Not Welsh, and Not Born in America at All

John "Jack Quinn" Picus is now a near-to-mythical baseball player from another era.

He became a Major League baseball player with the New York Highlanders in 1909, and, based on the information to be presented in this article, he was definitely twenty-five years of age at the start of that season. In 1908 he had had an astonishing year with Richmond in the Virginia League; he won 14 of 17 games pitched, without a loss, including 92 strikeouts. From 1909 until he played his last game in the Majors for the Cincinnati Reds in 1933, he pitched in 756 Major League games, winning 247 with an ERA of 3.29. In 1929, playing for Connie Mack's world champion Philadelphia Athletics, when he started the season at the age of forty-five and ended it aged forty-six, he was a starting pitcher in more than half the 35 games in which he played, winning 11 and losing 9 games.

Almost the last of the "spitball" pitchers, and one of just seventeen Major League pitchers permitted to go on using this pitch long after it was banned in 1920 because he had been pitching that way all his life, Jack Quinn is one of the "400 Greatest" players listed by Holway and Carroll in Total Baseball.1 He set Major League baseball records, some that were broken long ago but four of which live on today, more than seventy years since he set them. He is still

Jack has long been believed to have been born somewhere in Pennsylvania, on July 5, 1883, which is his date of birth listed in most of the "authoritative" baseball record books. On that basis, all the above-mentioned records were set after he had achieved at least his forty-sixth birthday, and he was more than forty-nine when he won his last Major League game as a pitcher.

Until 2006 he was also the oldest Major League player to hit a home run. (Julio Franco was certainly older when he hit a home run for the New York Mets in San Diego on April 21, 2006.) Jack, however, will likely remain the oldest pitcher to hit a home run for many, many years (if not forever), having done this on June 27, 1930. After all, only four men have ever hit homers after they passed the age of forty-five, and the other three (Julio Franco, Cap Anson, and Carlton Fisk) were all recognized hitters.

In Jack's obituary, the New York Times wrote:

Quinn's age was a popular topic of conversation among jokesters. Many were of the opinion that he was at least three or four years older than the age given in the record books.

But Quinn refused even to discuss his age when questioned. "I'll tell my age when I quit," he was once quoted as saying. "Nobody's going to know before that."2

However, he never did tell, and the probable truth is that Jack Quinn never knew his real date of birth. Only now, after several years of careful genealogical research, has his family been able to come to some reasonably firm conclusions about when, where, and to whom Jack Quinn was actually born.

Jack's family has long known that the boy who became Jack Quinn was born Janos Pajkos, the son of an immigrant coal miner, Michael Pajkos, or Paĭkos, from a village called Štefurov in Saros County, in what is now the northeastern part of the Republic of Slovakia (but was then just a part of the vast Austro-Hungarian Empire). The family also understood that Jack was a child of Michael Pajkos's first marriage. What no one has truly known until recently was when or where Jack Quinn was born, or the name of his birth mother. We now feel very confident that these were three things that Jack never knew himself.

According to Lee Allen, the former historian of the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York:

When the late S. C. Thompson was gathering material for the first edition of his Official Encyclopedia of Baseball, he asked me to track down Quinn's correct data, and I was able to obtain a baptismal certificate from his church showing that he was born at Jeansville, Pa., July 5, 1884.3 [End Page 94]

However, this baptismal certificate has been lost, and attempts to find it–or indeed any other comparable record–have proven fruitless. There is absolutely no sign of such a birth record in Jeansville (a tiny mining village just south of Hazleton), nor is there any evidence that Jack or his family ever lived close to the possible alternate of Janesville, also in Pennsylvania (but nearly 150 miles to the west of Hazleton). In fact, we now have good reason to believe that Jack Quinn was born almost exactly a year earlier–in Štefurov, Saros County, like his father before him. What's more, we have sufficient evidence to support this belief with a very high degree of probability, but not absolute proof.

Jack Quinn's father's name was originally Michael, or Mihaly, Pajkos or Paĭkos. Over the years, his name became anglicized to Michael Pikus and then Picus, after he arrived in America in the 1880s. Like many other central European immigrants of that time, he almost certainly emigrated from his homeland to escape the abject poverty of virtual serfdom and the "Magyarization" of the non-Hungarian sections of the eastern part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in which the ethnic identities of non-Hungarians were being relatively brutally suppressed. As we will discover, however, Michael and his first wife Maria had another reason for leaving Štefurov as well.

Michael Pajkos, Jack's father, was born in Štefurov on November 18, 1851. He was of Rusyn (not Russian) ethnic heritage, and his parents were Janos Paĭkos and Anna Czar; he was the fourth of four children, and the only one of the four to survive childhood. His father, Janos, died (of "miserere," which probably meant severe depression) when Michael was two years old. Michael's mother, Anna, quickly married again and had several children with her second husband, making Michael the "outlier" stepchild of the first marriage.

Sometime in late 1875 or early 1876, at the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, Michael married Maria Dzjiacsko, who had been born on August 17, 1851, in the nearby village of Kožany, just about two and a half miles to the north of Štefurov. She was also of Rusyn ancestry. To date, we have not identified a marriage record, but they went on to have four children, whose legitimate births, baptisms, deaths, and burials are carefully recorded (see fig. 1 on page 97) in the parish registers of the Greek Catholic Church in Štefurov, as follows:

There is no record or suggestion of the death of this last child.

But we have a problem. How do we know that Maria Dzjiacsko, the named mother of the first of these four children, and Maria Krochta, the named mother of the last three children, are the same person? The answer is to be found in the names of the baptismal sponsors or godparents. That these two names are the same person is supported by the lack of any record of the death of Maria Dzjiacsko in Štefurov or Kožany, or of a remarriage of Michael Pajkos in Štefurov.

In the mid to late nineteenth century, the Greek Catholic Church in each village was the center around which Slovaks of Rusyn ancestry wove their lives. With a remarkable degree of accuracy, the church recorded the births, marriages, deaths, and other events of community life in the small, rural Rusyn villages of eastern Slovakia. And it was traditional for the children of any one marriage to all have the same baptismal sponsors or godparents if at all possible. By contrast, should a marriage be terminated by the death of one spouse, and the surviving spouse remarried, the children of the second marriage would have completely different baptismal sponsors or godparents from those of the [End Page 96] first marriage. Look again at the godparents of the four children listed here. They all had the same godmother, Maria Bacskovszki, and three of the four had a godfather from the same family, either Georgius or Andreas Vaszicsko. But the menfolk would have been unavailable for a baptism far more commonly than the women. They might have had to work in the fields that day or take produce to market in the nearest town. Indeed, there might be hundreds of reasons why an expected godfather had to be replaced, whereas the godmother was more than likely to be available in the village.

 The church records for the four children of Michael Pajkos and Maria Dzjiacsko (a.k.a. Maria Krochta) from the Greek Catholic Church in Štefurov, Saros County, Republic of Slovakia. Item (d) is postulated to be the birth record of the child who became John 'Jack Quinn'
 The church records for the four children of Michael Pajkos and Maria Dzjiacsko (a.k.a. Maria Krochta) from the Greek Catholic Church in Štefurov, Saros County, Republic of Slovakia. Item (d) is postulated to be the birth record of the child who became John 'Jack Quinn'
 The church records for the four children of Michael Pajkos and Maria Dzjiacsko (a.k.a. Maria Krochta) from the Greek Catholic Church in Štefurov, Saros County, Republic of Slovakia. Item (d) is postulated to be the birth record of the child who became John 'Jack Quinn'
 The church records for the four children of Michael Pajkos and Maria Dzjiacsko (a.k.a. Maria Krochta) from the Greek Catholic Church in Štefurov, Saros County, Republic of Slovakia. Item (d) is postulated to be the birth record of the child who became John 'Jack Quinn'
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Figure 1
The church records for the four children of Michael Pajkos and Maria Dzjiacsko (a.k.a. Maria Krochta) from the Greek Catholic Church in Štefurov, Saros County, Republic of Slovakia. Item (d) is postulated to be the birth record of the child who became John "Jack Quinn" Picus.

We cannot prove with absolute certainty that Maria Dzjiacsko and Maria Krochta are the same person, but it is an extremely strong probability, which will be substantiated by additional evidence to be presented next. Furthermore, at the time of Maria Dzjiacsko's birth in Kožany, there were several families with the surname Dzjiacsko living in that village. It would have been customary [End Page 97] to distinguish between them by the use of nicknames, and this is what we believe Krochta is–a nickname to distinguish Maria Dzjiacsko's origin from other families of the Dzjiacsko clan in Kožany.

 Reproduction from the passenger records of the SS Suevia, on arrival in New York from Hamburg on June 18, 1884, showing the listing of 'Michaly Paĭchus' with his wife Maria and their one-year-old son, Janos. Courtesy of Ancestry.com.
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Figure 2
Reproduction from the passenger records of the SS Suevia, on arrival in New York from Hamburg on June 18, 1884, showing the listing of "Michaly Paĭchus" with his wife Maria and their one-year-old son, Janos. Courtesy of Ancestry.com.

To briefly recap: the evidence suggests that by late 1883 the Pajkos family comprised three individuals: Michael Pajkos, his wife, Maria Dzjiacsko Pajkos, and their fourth and only living child, Johannes, or Janos Pajkos. My postulate is that this Johannes Pajkos, born on July 1, 1883, in Štefurov, Saros County, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is the boy who became John "Jack Quinn" Picus.

Between 1880 and 1882, Michael and Maria Pajkos watched their first three children die, with only the first of them living for significantly more than a year. Is it surprising that, at some time in late 1883 or early 1884, Michael Pajkos might have made the decision to seek a new life for himself and his remaining family in America, just as many others from eastern Slovakia were doing at the time? And how do we know that this is what happened? The evidence can be found in the immigration shipping records.

On June 18, 1884, the SS Suevia docked in New York after sailing from Hamburg via Le Havre. Her passengers included the following three individuals, listed sequentially (see fig. 2 and table 1).

Figure 2 also indicates that their destination was the United States. They were traveling in the C area of steerage and had just two pieces of luggage between them.

While the spelling of Pajkos, or Paĭkos, has been transliterated to Paĭchus, and Maria appears to have given her age as several years younger than reality, there can be little doubt which family this is. However you try to spell it, Pajkos is a rare name in the shipping immigration records. Jack Quinn emigrated from Slovakia to America when slightly less than a year old, and a whole new life was spread out before him–just before it crashed to the ground.

Within a few weeks or months of arriving in America, sometime in late 1884, Maria Dzjiacsko died, leaving her husband in a new country with an infant son. Regrettably, we don't have any record of the precise date of death. Perhaps she contracted an infection on the crowded Suevia. Perhaps she died from a complication [End Page 98] of pregnancy. Maybe she just died of homesickness for Slovakia. All of these are possible. According to Picus family oral tradition, Michael found women among the Slovak communities near Hazleton to care for his son while he worked in the mines. There were probably several such women over the next three years, but the last of these was Anastasia Tzar, whom Michael married in November 1887.

Passengers of the SS Suevia
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Table 1

From family oral history and the 1900 census data, we are aware that Anastasia (known in the family as "Nora" or "Noska") arrived in America in 1886 (aged twenty or twenty-one), also from what is now the Slovak Republic, and that she became Jack's caregiver before marrying Michael Pajkos. Official baseball histories have commonly assumed that Anastasia was Jack Quinn's actual birth mother, but this is definitely incorrect. Anastasia was Jack's stepmother. Anna Jupina (née Picus) was the third child and eldest daughter of Michael and Anastasia Pajkos. She was the grandmother of the wife of the author, and she was Jack Quinn's favorite "sister." She would travel miles to watch him play ball in the early part of the twentieth century. The family has always been very clear about the relationship between Jack Quinn and the children of Michael Pajkos and his second wife, Anastasia.

The marriage record of Michael Pajkos to Anastasia Tzar is shown in figure 3. This image is from the records of St. Michael's Ukrainian Catholic Church, Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, dated November 8, 1887. The translation from the Latin reads as follows:

No. 84

On November 8, 1887, in Shenandoah [PA], there entered into marriage:

Groom: Michael Paykosh son of Joannis & Annae née Tzar from Shtefurov, born in Saros [Co.], Hungary, living in Buck Mountain, Schuykill County, [Co.], [PA], about 33 years old born a Greek Catholic, widower after the death of Maria Dziacsok who died in Highland, [PA] in 1884 and was buried in the Catholic cemetery in Woodside, Luzerne [Co.], [PA].

Bride: Anastasia daughter of Joannis Tzar & Mariae from Buglarka, born in Saros [End Page 99] County, Hungary, living in Hazleton, Luzerne County, [PA], about 22 years old, Greek Catholic, unmarried.

Witnesses: Michael Tzar, Valentinus Skwirzynski

License: From the Court of Orphans, Schuylkill County, [PA], dated November 8, 1887.

 The record of the marriage of Michael Paykosh to Anastasia Tzar at St. Michael's Ukrainian Catholic Church in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, on November 8, 1887. This is the record that explicitly mentions the death of Jack Quinn's mother, Maria Pajkos (née Dzjiacsko) in Highland, Pennsylvania, in 1884, the year following Jack's birth in Štefurov.
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Figure 3
The record of the marriage of Michael Paykosh to Anastasia Tzar at St. Michael's Ukrainian Catholic Church in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, on November 8, 1887. This is the record that explicitly mentions the death of Jack Quinn's mother, Maria Pajkos (née Dzjiacsko) in Highland, Pennsylvania, in 1884, the year following Jack's birth in Štefurov.

The text emphasized in italics refers specifically to the prior death of Michael's first wife, Maria. The surname is spelled Dziacsok as opposed to Dzjiacsko, but the similarities of such a rare name far outweigh the dissimilarities and further confirm the prior argument that Maria Dzjiacsko and Maria Krochta were the same individual.

There is indeed an appropriate Roman Catholic cemetery in Woodside, just southwest of Freeland, Pennsylvania, and west of the village of Highlands. This is a large, old cemetery, and an initial attempt to seek out a gravestone for Maria Pajkos (or Maria Dzjiacsko) demonstrated the probability that this would almost certainly be an unsuccessful search because of the nature of the cemetery and the degree of wear on the older gravestones (assuming that [End Page 100] Maria's husband could have even afforded a gravestone at the time). The village of Highlands is close to several mining communities that were active in the late nineteenth century. It is more than reasonable to believe that Michael Pajkos was employed in one of these mines but moved away to another mining area after the death of his first wife.

We can be sure that the Michael Paykosh listed in the marriage record and Michael Pajkos/Picus are the same person. Michael and Anastasia's first son (also named Michael Picus) was born at Buck Mountain, Mahanoy Township, Pennsylvania, on August 31, 1888, almost exactly ten months after the wedding, and was baptized in the same church where his parents had been married, and Michael Pajkos/Picus is listed as living at Buck Mountain at the time of the wedding. Some circumstances are too close not to be true!

The critical Pennsylvania census data for 1890 were unfortunately destroyed by fire. These data would be fundamental proof of the family connections, since Jack would have been almost seven years of age and certainly living at home with his father, stepmother, and their two eldest children (Jack's stepbrothers). But the data are unavailable to us. By the time of the census in 1900, on June 1 of that year, John Pajkos had become Jack Picus and had left home. He was aged sixteen years and eleven months exactly. He is not listed on the Pennsylvania census data for Pottsville in 1900 with his father, stepmother, and the first four children of the second marriage, and we haven't been able to find any other likely record for him in the 1900 census data under Quinn, Quin, Picus, Pajkos, or any similar name.

Jack definitely worked in the mines around Pottsville as a youth.4 He used to tell a story of how he escaped a mine fire and never went down a mine again thereafter.5 The tale of how he became a professional baseball player, according to Jack himself, goes as follows:

I was only 14 years of age when I "hopped" a freight train and decided to see the world. The next day, Fourth of July, I landed in Dunbar, PA. A baseball double header was scheduled. I attended the morning game. I stood in deep right field. A ball was hit to me. I was told to throw it in. I did so and out came the Dunbar manager to see who it was that had made such a long and accurate throw.

He asked me if I could play ball and I told him I could for I was hungry and without a cent in my pockets. He told me he would have me pitch the afternoon game and I would get $10 if Dunbar won and $5 if Dunbar lost. I got $10. I pitched for Dunbar for several weeks and then signed for Connellsville, received a trial with Toledo, pitched for Pottstown, finally signed with Richmond and then going to the Yankees.6

Supposedly, Jack first played for Dunbar in 1899 or 1900 because in a letter to John E. Bruce, secretary of the National Commission, at one time on file [End Page 101] at the Baseball Hall of Fame, he wrote, "I have pitched for seven years [italics added] for Dunbar, Connellsville, Mt. Pleasant, Ursina, Barlin, Washington, and Pottsville, all in Pennsylvania."7 This letter was written from Macon, Georgia, in 1907. If this is correct, then Jack was at least sixteen years and one month old when he first played for Dunbar, not fourteen–but he might not have known. The established records show Jack first playing for Connellsville in the Pennsylvania leagues in 1903, so precisely when his professional baseball career really began is now lost in the mists of time.

Let us see if we can debunk some of the other common misconceptions that have arisen about Jack Quinn over the years:

And let us see if we can add one more piece of history to the Jack Quinn story. If we are right in our identification, then John Pajkos, or Picus, a.k.a. Jack Quinn, was very probably the first significant individual of truly Czech or Slovak birth to play Major League baseball, more than thirty years before the first widely recognized Czechoslovak ballplayer, Elmer Valo.

In recent years, the McDonald family of Pottsville acquired and donated Jack Quinn's baseball glove to the Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society, and every so often a few people raise the question why Jack Quinn was never inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.14 The truth is probably painfully simple: Jack Quinn was undoubtedly a very good ballplayer but not a very great [End Page 102] one by comparison with those around him. After all, Jack's career overlapped those of thirty-one of the forty-nine individuals who were the earliest entrants into the Hall of Fame between 1936 and 1946. He must have played with or against many of these individuals.

If Jack had played from 1969 until 1993 (instead of 1909 to 1933), he might well be in the Hall of Fame. Today, we place great standing on sporting longevity. But Jack Quinn played with legends day in and day out for four decades. When Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs in a season, Jack pitched not just one but two of those sixty balls. When the Black Sox threw the 1919 World Series, Jack Quinn was playing for the Yankees. In that very year, because of Jack Quinn, Ban Johnson and Charles Comiskey fell out after a friendship of twenty years when Jack was awarded to the Yankees after playing the previous year for Chicago.15 When Ty Cobb finished his Major League career with the Philadelphia Athletics, Jack Quinn was playing right alongside him. By comparison with such "real" baseball legends, Jack Quinn was a very good ballplayer with a strong right arm who emphasized fitness in a time when others did not. But now we probably do, finally, really know his age, and we are pleased to be able to leave the memory of Jack Quinn with a proper birth.

Last but not least, we should explain why we believe that Jack Quinn did not know his own real birth date or his own real mother. There are four incontrovertible pieces of evidence:

The truth is probably much simpler. Jack's father and stepmother's English was at best limited. His father could not write and is known to have signed his own application for citizenship and his will with a simple X. Jack likely did not feel he "belonged" in the family that his father created with his second [End Page 103] wife. Like his own father, he was the "outlier" stepchild in his father's second family. Jack may or may not have spoken Slovak well as a child, but he probably stopped speaking it when he left home sometime shortly before 1900. It is more than possible that he and his father were not close. His father was known to be a withdrawn man with an unpredictable temper. If Jack did not even know his own mother's name, as indicated by the "Delayed Birth Certificate" and the application for a Social Security card, it seems likely that, after his first wife's death, Jack's father rarely, if ever, referred to her again, and that therefore the date and place of Jack's birth were simply unknown to Jack, the child. These were memories that his father may have wanted to bury forever. We suspect, too, that Jack Quinn never knew about his three older siblings who died. If nothing else, he showed himself to have the stamina of four average men!

 Jack Quinn's application for a Social Security number, dated October 7, 1939. Note the clear statement 'Do not Know' in response to the request for 'Mother's full maiden name (regardless of whether living or dead).'
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Figure 4
Jack Quinn's application for a Social Security number, dated October 7, 1939. Note the clear statement "Do not Know" in response to the request for "Mother's full maiden name (regardless of whether living or dead)."

In finally demonstrating Jack's date of birth as July 1, 1883, we have added just four days to his age. This difference may be small, but it may also be important. Jack pitched in his last game of Major League baseball for the Cincinnati Reds on July 6, 1933, when he thought he was fifty years and one day old. It is almost certain that he did this to become the first (and to date the only) Major League player to play "on merit" when he was fifty years of age. It was his fourteenth game of the season. The previous year, he had pitched 42 games for the Brooklyn Robins, finishing 31 of those games. And the addition of an extra four days to all Jack's surviving records may make a small difference to the very few others, such as Julio Franco, who have a chance to break them. [End Page 104]

Mike Scott, a British citizen and more than twenty-year resident alien in the United States, who claims to comprehend way more about cricket than he does about baseball, is distantly related to John "Jack Quinn" Picus by marriage. He is the unofficial family genealogist for the U.S. Jupina and Picus families. He plans to continue his "day job" as a principal and executive vice president of Vox Medica, Inc., a specialized, Philadelphia-based, health-care communications company.

Acknowledgment

Many people have contributed in one way or another to this research over several years–some more significantly than others, but all importantly: Robert McDonald of Pottsville, Pennsylvania, who gave Jack's mitt to the A's museum, first made me realize that Jack Quinn was actually someone relatively important. Andrew Jupina of Hazleton, Pennsylvania, my wife's father and Jack Quinn's step-nephew, was able to tell me family stories. Dorothy Zapack (née Jupina) of Boynton Beach, Florida, my wife's aunt and Jack Quinn's step-niece, told me that her grandfather, Michael Picus, was born in Štefurov. The late Michael B. Jupina of Lansford, Pennsylvania, one of Jack Quinn's great step-nephews, knew more family stories, some of them actually true. Andrew Podlesny of Santa Barbara, California, first found what we thought might be Jack's birth record on microfilm in the genealogical records of the Church of Jesus Christ and the Latter Day Saints in Salt Lake City. Marcella Athmann (née Picus) of Stewart, Minnesota, one of Jack Quinn's great step-nieces, was able to introduce me to the late Father J. Whitney Evans of Duluth, Minnesota, who had searched unsuccessfully for years for the details of Jack's date and place of birth and generously shared with me all his information about where Jack might have been born or baptized. Steve Steinberg of Seattle confirmed some of my own research and convinced me that baseball historians might really be interested. Michael Sura of Kosice, Republic of Slovakia, a professional Slovak genealogist, "found" Maria Dzjiacsko's birth records and explained for me at one o'clock one morning (a decent hour on Slovak time) why, with 99 percent certainty, Maria Dzjiacsko and Maria Krochta were the same person. Finally, Ilona R. Jupina Scott, my wife, another of Jack's great step-nieces, put up with this ludicrous obsession for nearly eight years.

Notes

1. John B. Holway and Bob Carroll, "The 400 Greatest," in Total Baseball: The Official Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball, 6th ed., ed. John Thorn, Pete Palmer, Michael Gershman, and David Pietrusza, 188 (Kingston, NY: Total Sports, 1999).

2. "Jack Quinn is Dead; 25 Years in the Majors," New York Times, April 19, 1946.

3. Lee Allen, "Baseball Methuselah–Jack Quinn Big Leaguer at 49," Sporting News, September 9, 1967, 6.

4. F. C. Lane, "The Dean of Major League Pitchers," Baseball Magazine, March 1927, 453–70.

5. T. Holmes, "[. . .] Days in Penn Coal Mines" [complete title unknown]. Article believed to be from the Brooklyn Eagle, possibly on August 11, 1931 or 1932.

6. American League press release, released to Sunday newspapers on February 24, 1929.

7. Allen, "Baseball Methuselah."

8. Lane, "The Dean"; Allen, "Baseball Methuselah."

9. Westbrook Pegler, "For 26 Years, Man and Boy, Jack Quinn Has Set 'Em Down [End Page 105] with His Trusty Spitball," Chicago Tribune, October 1, 1929, 34; "Quinn Confides in 'Shag,'" New York Telegram, April 25, 1927.

10. John Kiernan, "The Russian Rookie with the Robins," New York Times, February 12, 1931, 32.

11. For more information about Rusyns and their origins, see Paul Robert Magocsi on the Carpatho-Rusyns at http://carpatho-rusyn.org/history.htm (accessed March 24, 2007).

12. Note, however, that there was a family named Quinn living in Dunbar Township, Pennsylvania, at the time of the 1900 census. Is it possible that Jack lodged with this family and adopted their name? An Irish name would certainly have been more acceptable to the world of baseball in the early 1900s than the strange name Pajkos, or even Picus.

13. U.S. Social Security Administration, Application for Social Security Number, completed by "John Quin Picus" and dated October 7, 1939.

14. Ernie Montella, "New Treasure on Display in A's Museum," Along the Elephant Trail: The Official Newsletter of the Philadelphia A's Historical Society (issue and date unknown).

15. Steve Steinberg, "World War I and Free Agency: The Fateful 1918 Battle for Jack Quinn," NINE 16.2 (Spring 2008), 84–92 (in this issue).

16. U.S. Social Security Administration, Application for Social Security Number.

17. The late Father John Whitney Evans, College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, MN, personal communication, September 13, 2001.

18. Father Evans, personal communication.