Linguistic Inquiry

Linguistic Inquiry
Volume 36, Number 2, Spring 2005

CONTENTS

    Adger, David.
    Ramchand, Gillian, 1965-
  • Merge and Move: Wh-Dependencies Revisited
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scottish Gaelic language -- Dependency grammar.
    • Scottish Gaelic language -- Syntax.
    • Scottish Gaelic language -- Semantics.
    Abstract:
      In this article, we argue that, under current conceptions of the architecture of the grammar, apparent wh-dependencies can, in principle, arise from either a movement or a base-generation strategy, where Agree establishes the syntactic connection in the latter case. The crucial diagnostics are not locality effects, but identity effects. We implement the base-generation analysis using a small set of semantically interpretable features, together with a simple universal syntax-semantics correspondence. We show that parametric variation arises because of the different ways the features are bundled on functional heads. We further argue that it is the bundling of two features on a single lexical item, together with the correspondence that requires them to be interpreted apart, that is responsible for the displacement property of human languages.
    Keywords:
      relatives, movement, base generation, syntax-semantics interface, Scottish Gaelic
    Harris, James.
    Halle, Morris.
  • Unexpected Plural Inflections in Spanish: Reduplication and Metathesis
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    Subject Headings:
    • Spanish language -- Verb.
    • Spanish language -- Suffixes and prefixes.
    • Spanish language -- Reduplication.
    Abstract:
      We examine the puzzling displacement in various Spanish dialects of a plural suffix from a verb where it is motivated semantically, syntactically,and morphologically onto a following clitic. We present previously unreported data and a new analysis of this material that succeeds where earlier efforts fail to provide a unified account of related phenomena. Our solution,which employs recent work on reduplication and metathesis,allows us to account for seemingly disparate phenomena as special cases of a single general framework and demonstrates that these operations are more versatile than previously thought. Directions for future research are indicated.
    Keywords:
      form-meaning mismatches, Distributed Morphology, metathesis, reduplication, plural inflection, Spanish
    LaCharité, Darlene.
    Paradis, Carole, 1956-
  • Category Preservation and Proximity versus Phonetic Approximation in Loanword Adaptation
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    Subject Headings:
    • Language and languages -- Foreign words and phrases.
    • Phonology.
    Abstract:
      In this article, we argue that loanword adaptation is overwhelmingly phonological and that phonetic approximation plays a limited role in the sound changes that loanwords undergo. Explicit criteria are used to compare the predictions of the phonetic approximation and phonological stances against 12 large corpora of recent English and French loanwords in several different languages. We show that category proximity is overwhelmingly preferred over perceptual proximity and that typical L2 perception/interpretation errors are not reflected in the adaptations of the loanwords of this database. Borrowers accurately identify L2 sound categories, operating on the mental representation of an L2 sound, not directly on its surface phonetic form.
    Keywords:
      loanword adaptation, borrowing, phonological adaptation, phonetic approximation, perceptual adaptation, Project CoPho database

Remarks and Replies

    Büring, Daniel.
  • Bound to Bind
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    Subject Headings:
    • Government-binding theory (Linguistics)
    Abstract:
      Two familiar ideas in the theory of binding are explored: that semantic binding is preferred over coreference (Reinhart 1983) and that (pronoun) binding seeks the closest antecedent (Fox 2000). It is shown that both proposals, when combined, yield an alternative and arguably simpler approach to the co-binding facts discussed by Heim (1993), but that neither alone does (contrary to what is suggested in Fox 2000). Then a unification of both ideas is proposed. Interestingly, the resulting system no longer entails one of Heim's (1993) conclusions, namely, that (co)reference must be marked by syntactic (co)indexing.
    Keywords:
      binding theory, bound variable anaphora, reference, minimal binding
    Nevins, Andrew Ira.
  • Overwriting Does Not Optimize in Nonconcatenative Morphology
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    Subject Headings:
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Phonology.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Morphology.
    Abstract:
      Overwriting is modeled in Optimality Theory as a competition for a position within the derivational base (Alderete et al. 1999, Ussishkin 1997). Faithfulness constraints that are evaluated on the basis of segment counting predict a typology of languages in which (a) optimization dictates that the relative size of the affixal material determines whether it will win out and "overwrite" the base, and (b) optimization ensures that if both the affix and base material can surface without incurring phonotactic violations, this should be optimal. Both predictions are wrong. Hebrew denominal verb formation and Hindi echo reduplication demonstrate cases of nonconcatenative derivation in which overwriting is better understood as rule-induced change.
    Keywords:
      Melodic Overwriting, Hindi echo reduplication, shm-reduplication, Fixed-Segment Reduplication, Hebrew denominal verb formation

Squibs and Discussion

    Collins, Chris, 1963-
  • A Smuggling Approach to Raising in English
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    Subject Headings:
    • English language -- Grammar.
    • Government-binding theory (Linguistics)
    Lin, Jonah.
  • Does Wh-in-Situ License Parasitic Gaps?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Parasitic gaps (Linguistics)
    • Extraction (Linguistics)
    • Chinese language -- Grammar, Generative.
    • Chinese language -- Syntax.
    Sauerland, Uli.
  • DP Is Not a Scope Island
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    Subject Headings:
    • Scope (Linguistics)
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Syntax.



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