Linguistic Inquiry

Linguistic Inquiry
Volume 35, Number 2, Spring 2004

CONTENTS

    Han, Chung-hye, 1968-
    Romero, Maribel.
  • Disjunction, Focus, and Scope
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    Subject Headings:
    • Focus (Linguistics)
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Negatives.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Interrogative.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Ellipsis.
    Abstract:
      This article presents the observation that disjunction cannot take wide scope in negative non-wh-questions and declaratives with a preposed negative element. This rules out the alternative question reading for non-wh-questions with preposed negation and the wide scope or reading for neg-inverted declaratives. We show that effects parallel to the ones associated with preposed negation can be reproduced in affirmative non-wh-questions and declaratives when focus is involved. We propose that preposed negation in non-wh-questions and preposed negative adverbials in declaratives necessarilycontribute focus marking (in particular, verum focus) and argue that the lack of wide scope disjunction reading in both declaratives and non-wh-questions results as a by-product of the interaction between focus and the LF syntax of disjunctive structures, which we argue involves ellipsis.
    Keywords:
      negation, focus, verum, alternative questions, yes-no questions, ellipsis, disjunction, neg(ative) preposing
    Tesar, Bruce.
  • Using Inconsistency Detection to Overcome Structural Ambiguity
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    Subject Headings:
    • Language acquisition.
    • Optimality theory (Linguistics)
    • Learning ability.
    Abstract:
      The Inconsistency Detection Learner (IDL) is an algorithm for language learning that addresses the problem of structural ambiguity.If an overt form is structurally ambiguous, the learner must be capable of inferring which interpretation of the overt form is correct by reference to other overt data of the language.The IDL does this by attempting to construct grammars for combinations of interpretations of the overt forms, and discarding those combinations that are inconsistent. The potential of this algorithm for overcoming the combinatorial growth in combinations of interpretations is supported by computational results from an implementation of the IDL using an optimalitytheoretic system of metrical stress grammars.
    Keywords:
      learnability, metrical phonology, language acquisition, Optimality Theory

Remarks and Replies

    Harley, Heidi.
  • Wanting, Having, and Getting: A Note on Fodor and Lepore 1998
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    Subject Headings:
    • Fodor, Jerry A. Emptiness of the lexicon: reflections on James Pustejovsky's the generative lexicon.
    • LePore, Ernest, 1950-
    • Lexical-functional grammar.
    • Compositionality (Linguistics)
    • Semantics.
    Abstract:
      This article takes up Fodor and Lepore's (1998) account of the meaning of [want DP]structures, according to which the verb to have is introduced at interpretation. With certain DP complements a want to have DP paraphrase of want DP is ill formed; the correct paraphrase uses get or give. To allow for this, F&L would have to vary the introduced verb depending on the meaning of the DP, but this would make their proposal "co-compositional," defeating its original purpose. If have, get, and give all contain the abstract preposition PHAVE (Harley 1995, Richards 2001), however, F&L's treatment may be appropriately revised: the element introduced by want is not have but PHAVE. F&L can avoid co-compositionality at the price of allowing lexical decomposition.
    Keywords:
      lexical decomposition, atomism, compositionality, idiom, have
    Larson, Richard K.
    Marusic, Franc.
  • On Indefinite Pronoun Structures with APs: Reply to Kishimoto
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kishimoto, Hideki. Indefinite pronouns and overt N-raising.
    • English language -- Pronoun.
    • English language -- Adjectivals.
    • English language -- Definiteness.
    • English language -- Attribute.
    Abstract:
      A number of authors have claimed that indefinite pronoun constructions like everything red are formed by raising a noun (thing) over a higher prenominal adjective (red). We examine phenomena in English and other languages which appear to show that adjectives participating in the indefinite pronoun construction do not correspond to prenominal forms, but to postnominal ones. We evaluate the challenges these results present for the N-raising account, showing that while some can be met, others apparently cannot. This outcome calls for a reexamination of postnominal position with indefinite pronouns.
    Keywords:
      indefinite pronouns, adjectives, N-raising, DP syntax, nominal modification, attributives
    Ouhalla, Jamal, 1961-
  • Semitic Relatives
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kayne, Richard S. Antisymmetry of syntax.
    • Semitic languages -- Relative clauses.
    Abstract:
      This article evaluates a promotion-based analysis for Semitic relatives along the lines of Kayne 1994 and compares it with an alternative analysis that does not make use of promotion but shares with Kayne's analysis an antisymmetric view of phrase structure. The alternative analysis is based on establishing a parametric distinction relating to categorial identity of the relative clause such that it is a CP in some languages and a DP in others. The first type is found in languages where the relative complementizer is the same as the normal complementizer of sentential complementation (e.g., Hebrew). The second type is found in languages where the relative complementizer is a determiner (e.g., Amharic and Arabic). This difference is shown to have crucial implications for the structure and derivation of N-initial and N-final relatives, as well as for some relevant typological generalizations, including a generalization relating to the phenomenon of (relative) clause nominalization.
    Keywords:
      CP versus DP relative clauses, construct state versus free state relatives, N-initial versus N-final relatives, external versus internal nominalization
    Roodenburg, Jasper.
  • French Bare Arguments Are Not Extinct: The Case of Coordinated Bare Nouns
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    Subject Headings:
    • Heycock, Caroline B. 1960- Coordinated bare definites.
    • Zamparelli, Roberto.
    • French language -- Noun phrase.
    • French language -- Coordinate constructions.
    Abstract:
      The study of bare arguments mainly concentrates on the distribution of bare plurals (BPs) while little attention is paid to coordinated bare nouns (CBNs). The contribution of Heycock and Zamparelli (2003) is a serious attempt to fill this gap, but the details of their analysis lead to predictions that are not correct for French. I show that CBNs exhibit surprisingly uniform behavior across languages, unlike BPs, which are subject to crosslinguistic variation, as sketched by Longobardi (2001). To account for these facts, I propose a modification of Heycock and Zamparelli's analysis of CBNs.
    Keywords:
      coordinated bare nouns, number, indefiniteness

Squibs and Discussion

    Han, Chung-hye, 1968-
    Kim, Jong-Bok, 1966-
  • Are There "Double Relative Clauses" in Korean?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Korean language -- Relative clauses.
    • Korean language -- Verb.
    Hazout, Ilan.
  • Long-Distance Agreement and the Syntax of for-to Infinitives
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    Subject Headings:
    • English language -- Syntax.
    • English language -- Infinitival constructions.
    • Minimalist theory (Linguistics)
    Schwarz, Bernhard.
  • Indefinites in Verb Phrase Ellipsis
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    Subject Headings:
    • English language -- Definiteness.
    • English language -- Verb phrase.
    • English language -- Ellipsis.



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