Art festivals -- Iran -- Shīrāz -- History -- 20th century.
Intercultural communication in the performing arts -- Iran -- Shīrāz -- History -- 20th century.
Iran in the 1970s was host to an array of electronic music and avant-garde arts. In the decade prior to the Islamic revolution, the Shiraz Arts Festival provided a showcase for composers, performers, dancers and theater directors from Iran and abroad, among them Iannis Xenakis, Peter Brook, John Cage, Gordon Mumma, David Tudor, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Merce Cunningham. A significant arts center, which was to include electronic music and recording studios, was planned as an outgrowth of the festival. While the complex politics of the Shah's regime and the approaching revolution brought these developments to an end, a younger generation of artists continued the festival's legacy.
Special Section: Live Art and Science on the Internet
Guest Editor: Martha Wilson
The Internet has become a venue and medium for art as a means to broadcast ideas to a worldwide audience. As artists and others produce live art on the Internet, liveness, presence, mediatization, on-line activism, surveillance and identity/gender, among other issues, are being explored.
Guest Editor Martha Wilson investigates the subject of "Live Art and Science on the Internet" in this ongoing special section in Leonardo, looking at the work of artists and scientists using the Internet to create work or conduct investigations live and on-line.
The author describes The Wigglism Manifesto, a work authored amidst the fury of early exchange on the World Wide Web. The term Wigglism refers to a quality shared by biological and artificial life forms alike. The manifesto has taken an open-source approach to its cultivation, allowing numerous voices to nurture the entity into being. This collective approach to truth cultivation embodied by the manifesto was inspired, in part, by the author's experiences with community-based media rituals in the North Brooklyn community before it gentrified in the mid-1990s. The project has affirmed its initiator's sense that cultivating a living system can be a vital alternative to traditional creative practices more aligned with manufacturing and commerce.
Digital techniques, primarily software appropriated from the entertainment and industrial design sectors, have destabilized the essential status of the architectural image-object formulated in classical philosophical thought. Western European art experienced a similar crisis when conceptual art movements of the 1960s challenged Clement Greenberg's notion of medium specificity. The author examines work by conceptual artists whose theories posit alternative views of spatial and social relations based on open-ended systems and indeterminacy. An examination of the relationship between materiality and abstraction as exemplified in new media's reformulation of architectural design processes indicates how a more inclusive and mutable profession has been realized.
Betancourt, Michael, 1970-
A Taxonomy of Abstract Form Using Studies of Synesthesia and Hallucinations [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Shapes -- Classification.
Synesthesia in art.
Art -- Psychology.
The author proposes a taxonomy of abstract form anchored in an examination of the history and theory of synesthesia and abstract art. The foundations of this taxonomy lie in empirical psychological studies of "formconstants" found in cross-modal synesthetic visions and hallucinatory states, specifically the work of Heinrich Klüver in his examinations of mescaline and the mechanisms producing visual hallucinations. While the proposed taxonomy is limited only to synesthesia-inspired abstraction, it has suggestive possibilities when considered in relation to other forms of nonsynesthetic abstraction such as Islamic Art, the geometric forms found on classical Greek vases, and other kinds of decorative abstract patterns.
Special Section: ArtScience: The Essential Connection
Guest Editor: Robert Root-Bernstein
The sixth installment of a Leonardo special project exploring the work and writings of artistic scientists who find their art avocation valuable; scientifically literate artists who draw problems, materials, techniques or processes from the sciences; or others interested in such interactions.
The increasing use of computer enhancement and simulation to reveal the unseen human body brings with it challenges, opportunities and responsibilities at the interface of art and science. Here they are presented and discussed in the context of efforts to understand the role of blood-flow dynamics in
A New Art Form: Exploring Nature's Creativity with a Self-Organizing Medium [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Painting -- Technique.
Painting -- Technological innovations.
The author describes a new art form that uses the selforganizing potential of a waterbased medium to provide an ever-changing environment for interpretation and elaboration. The medium allows for little separation between plan and execution. The artist, nature and science interact on the "canvas" to create an art rich in novelty and surprise.
Special Section: From the Leonardo Archive
We are thrilled this year to be publishing the 40th volume of Leonardo! As part of Leonardo's 40th Anniversary celebrations, we will be reprinting seminal texts from the journal's rich 40-year archive. In this issue, we present an article from the first issue of Leonardo, published in 1967: Frank J. Malina's "Kinetic Painting: The Lumidyne System." The reader is invited to read and marvel at the groundbreaking work and thought of this artist documented in Leonardo 40 years ago.
The paper discusses briefly kinetic painting systems that have been devised for producing a pictorial composition on a translucent flat surface that changes with time without resorting to the projection of light through film in a darkened room. The Lumidyne system developed by the author in 1956 is described in detail. Basic principles of its design, together with variations of the system, are given as well as the method of painting used by the author. Examples of several works are shown. The picture produced by the system is considered from the point of view of real motion and of change of transparent colour with time. The need for aesthetic guide lines for the kinetic painter is stressed. The author concludes that the Lumidyne system, after ten years of experience with it, is a practical, controllable and economical artistic medium.
L'article explique brièvement les systèmes de peinture cinétique qui ont été inventés pour produire une composition illustrée sur une surface unie et translucide. Cette composition se déroule dans le temps sans recourir à la projection de lumière à travers un film dans une chambre noire. Le système Lumidyne développé par l'auteur en 1956 est décrit en détail. Les principes de base de cette construction, avec des variations du système, sont donnés ainsi que la méthode de peinture employée par l'auteur. Des exemples de plusieurs oeuvres sont montrés. L'image produite par le système est considérée sous l'aspect d'un mouvement réel et d'un changement de couleur transparent avec le temps. L'auteur insiste sur la nécessité de directives esthétiques pour l'artiste cinétique. Après dix ans d'expérience avec le système Lumidyne, l'auteur conclut que ce système est un moyen artistique qui est pratique, contrôlable et économique.