Latin American Research Review

Latin American Research Review
Volume 41, Number 1, 2006

CONTENTS

    Duarte, Regina Horta.
  • Pássaros e cientistas no Brasil: Em busca de proteção, 18941938
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    Subject Headings:
    • Birds -- Conservation -- Economic aspects -- Brazil -- History -- 20th century.
    • Birds -- Conservation -- Political aspects -- Brazil -- History -- 20th century.
    Resumo:
      Um desastroso extermínio de pássaros ocorreu no Brasil durante as primeiras décadas do período republicano, quando o comércio de penas atingiu níveis estrondosos. Os primeiros protestos contra tal situação vieram de naturalistas atuantes nos museus de ciência brasileiros, através do delineamento de dois argumentos principais. Em primeiro lugar, esses cientistas criticavam um liberalismo permissivo do Estado Republicano, responsável pelo abandono dos recursos naturais sem qualquer tipo de proteção. Em segundo lugar, tentavam persuadir os agricultores da utilidade dos pássaros, na maioria insetívoros, e cuja preservação seria absolutamente essencial para manter o equilíbrio natural, um dos pré-requisitos para a continuidade do crescimento econômico e para a construção de uma Nação moderna. Após 1930, com a centralização política promovida por Vargas, o argumento da utilidade dos pássaros foi empregado no reforço de valores morais do regime autoritário, em representações antropomórficas do meio natural.
    Abstract:
      Disastrous bird extermination occurred in Brazil during the first decades of the newly established Republic. The trade in feathers reached striking levels. The first voices crying out against this situation came from naturalists who worked at the Brazilian Museums, who outlined two main arguments. First, they criticized what they considered a permissive liberalism of the new Republican State that left the natural resources without any kind of protection. Second, they tried to persuade the farmers that birds, which are mainly insectivores, were absolutely essential to maintain equilibrium in nature. This equilibrium would emerge as a prerequisite to sustain the continuity of the economic growth and the construction of a modern nation. After 1930, with the political centralization promoted by Vargas, the argument of the birds' utility was employed to reinforce moral values of the authoritarian regimen in an anthropomorphic representation of the natural environment.
    Belini, Claudio.
  • El grupo Bunge y la política económica del primer peronismo, 1943-1952
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bunge, Alejandro - Influence.
    • Industrial policy -- Brazil -- History -- 20th century.
    • Brazil -- Politics and government -- 1930-1945.
    • Brazil -- Politics and government -- 1945-1954.
    Resumen:
      Este trabajo analiza la influencia política e ideológica que el grupo de discípulos de Alejandro Bunge tuvo en la definición de la política económica del primer peronismo. Se sostiene que su postura favorable a la industrialización en los debates de la entreguerra y el influjo que el catolicismo social ejerció en sus miembros le permitió al grupo ejercer influencia sobre la dictadura militar de 1943. El artículo estudia el papel del grupo en la Secretaría de Industria, la elaboración del primer régimen de promoción industrial y los debates económicos de la inmediata posguerra. Se argumenta que el grupo Bunge desempeñó un rol decisivo en la orientación de la política industrial peronista, moldeando sus características básicas y brindando al régimen de Perón los argumentos que la justificaban. A propósito de ello, el trabajo discute la interpretación que otorga excesivo énfasis a factores políticos y sociales, como el enfrentamiento de Perón con los Estados Unidos y las demandas del movimiento obrero, en la orientación que tomó la política industrial peronista.
    Abstract:
      This paper analyzes the political and ideological influence that the group of disciples of Alejandro Bunge exerted over the definition of the economic policies during the first Peronist administration. It argues that the group's support for industrialization during the interwar period as well asthe pressure exerted by social Catholicism upon its members allowed the group to manipulate the 1943 military government. Moreover, this article examines the role of the group in the Industry Secretariat, the formation of the first program of industrial promotion, and the economic discussions held during the post war period. It argues that the Bunge group played a decisive role in the orientation of Peronist industrial policies, shaping its basic characteristics, and justifying the policies. In this sense, this paper questions the argument that overly emphasizes the importance of political and social factors that oriented Peronist industrial policies, such as Peron's confrontation with the United States and the demands of the labor movement.
    Biglaiser, Glen, 1963-
    DeRouen, Karl R., 1962-
  • Economic Reforms and Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Investments, Foreign -- Latin America -- History -- 20th century.
    • Latin America -- Economic policy.
    Abstract:
      This paper seeks to explain the effect of different economic reforms for attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) in Latin America. Controlling for macroeconomic and good governance factors, we find that governments that implement economic reforms are not always more likely to attract FDI inflows. Instead, attempts to minimize expropriation risk complement domestic financial and trade reforms, which enhances foreign investor interest. Elements of both good governance and reform are important. The results provide reasons for optimism—the fact that most economic reforms are not essential for attracting FDI suggests that countries seeking FDI will encounter fewer obstacles.
    Resumen:
      Este trabajo busca explicar el efecto de diferentes reformas económicas con el objetivo de atraer inversión extranjera directa (IED) en América Latina. Controlando factores macroeconómicos y de gobernabilidad, encontramos que los gobiernos que implementan reformas económicas no siempre tienden a atraer entradas de IED. Por otro lado, intentos para minimizar el riesgo de expropiación complementan las reformas a nivel financiero y de comercio, que elevan el interés de los inversionistas extranjeros. De todas maneras, elementos tanto de gobernabilidad como de reforma no dejan de ser importantes. Los resultados proporcionan optimismo—el hecho de que la mayoría de las reformas económicas nos sean esenciales para atraer IED sugiere que países que busquen IED tropezarán con menos obstáculos.
    Mollett, Sharlene.
  • Race and Natural Resource Conflicts in Honduras: The Miskito and Garifuna Struggle for Lasa Pulan
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    Subject Headings:
    • Miskito Indians -- Land tenure -- Honduras.
    • Garifuna (Caribbean people) -- Land tenure -- Honduras.
    • Natural resources -- Political aspects -- Honduras.
    • Honduras -- Race relations -- Political aspects.
    Abstract:
      The Honduran Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve has become a place of struggle over natural resources. This paper examines a land contest between the Miskito Indians and the Garifuna, an indigenous group and Afro-indigenous group respectively. The area in question is Lasa Pulan, a one square kilometer of forest and farmland, historically shared by both Miskito and Garifuna collectives. Through discursive analysis, this paper traces contemporary discourse and practice that these actors employ to justify exclusive claims to Lasa Pulan. Such contemporary claims are structured by longstanding colonial and postcolonial racial ideologies that stereotypically label blacks as "immoral" and "violent" and Indians as "ignorant" and "backward." This paper argues, through analysis of Miskito and Garifuna claims to Lasa Pulan, that natural resource struggles are simultaneously racial struggles, and it acquaints policy makers with the multiple tenure arrangements in pluricultural Honduras.
    Resumen:
      La Reserva de la Biosfera de Río Plátano se ha convertido en un terreno de lucha por sus recursos naturales. Este trabajo examina la disputa por su tierra que existe entre los Miskito y los Garifuna, grupos indígenas y afro-indígenas respectivamente. El área en cuestión es Lasa Pulan, un kilómetro cuadrado de bosque y tierra de cultivo, compartida a lo largo de la historia por ambos pueblos. A través de un análisis discursivo, este trabajo traza el discurso y la práctica contemporáneos utilizados por estos actores para justificar los derechos exclusivos que ellos poseen sobre Lasa Pulan. Dichas pretensiones fueron estructuradas por muchos años de ideologías raciales existentes durante y después de la colonia, que etiquetaban a los negros como "inmorales" y "violentos," y a las indígenas como "ignorantes" y "retrasados." Este artículo argumenta, a través de las reclamaciones hechas por Lasa Pulan, que luchas sobre sus recursos naturales son simultáneamente las luchas raciales, e informa a aquéllos responsables de las políticas sobre las múltiples normas de tenencia de la tierra existentes en Honduras pluricultural.
    Hawkins, Kirk Andrew, 1969-
    Hansen, David R.
  • Dependent Civil Society: The Círculos Bolivarianos in Venezuela
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    Subject Headings:
    • Civil society -- Venezuela.
    • Populism -- Venezuela.
    • Democracy -- Venezuela.
    • Chávez Frís, Hugo.
    Abstract:
      For several years the Círculos Bolivarianos were a key organized component of the movement supporting President Hugo Chávez in Venezuela and the question of their democratic qualities a source of considerable controversy, but until recently there was little data to test the competing claims of supporters and opponents. We report the results of a survey of 110 members of Círculos and several interviews carried out in four Venezuelan states during June and July 2004. After providing basic information on the Círculos, we analyze their tendency to contribute to a democratic civil society. We find that respondents had highly democratic goals and methods; however, their organizations embodied a charismatic mode of linkage to Chávez that undermined their ability to become institutionalized. In addition, although the Círculos performed valuable social work, they often reinforced clientelistic relations between Chávez and the voters, and they did not significantly enhance the level of pluralism in the broader civil society.
    Resumen:
      Durante varios años los Círculos Bolivarianos fueron un componente clave en el movimiento que apoya al Presidente Hugo Chávez en Venezuela y una fuente de controversia considerable en cuanto a sus cualidades democráticas; sin embargo, hasta hace poco tiempo no había suficientes datos para probar las opiniones de partidarios y opositores a dicho movimiento. Presentamos los resultados de una encuesta realizada a 110 miembros de los Círculos y varias entrevistas efectuadas en cuatro estados venezolanos durante junio y julio de 2004. Luego de proveer información básica sobre los Círculos, analizamos su tendencia a contribuir a una sociedad civil democrática. Encontramos que los encuestados tienen altos objetivos y procedimientos democráticos; sin embargo, sus organizaciones personifican un modo carismático de conexión con Chávez que dificulta su habilidad para institucionalizarse. A su vez, y a pesar de que los Círculos realizaron un valioso trabajo social, han reforzado las relaciones clientelísticas entre Chávez y sus votantes; y no han aumentado de manera significativa el nivel de pluralismo en la sociedad civil en general.

Research Reports and Notes

    Llanos, Mariana, 1967-
    Sánchez, Francisco.
  • Council of Elders? The Senate and Its Members in the Southern Cone
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    Subject Headings:
    • Legislators -- South America.
    • Argentina. Congreso de la Nación. Senado de la Nación.
    • Brazil. Congresso Nacional. Senado Federal.
    • Chile. Congreso Nacional. Senado.
    • Uruguay. Consejo de Estado.
    Abstract:
      This research note contributes to the comparative studies on legislative careers. It sheds light on the scarcely researched members of four Latin American upper houses, the Senates of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. It examines both the basic social features of the parliamentary elite—age, gender, level of education, and university careers—and the legislators' political careers. The goal is to find out whether the upper houses are composed of a larger proportion of senior members than the respective lower chambers, that is, of members who not only are older, wealthier, and more educated, but that also have greater political experience. As a result of this research, the Senates of Chile and Uruguay stood out for having the largest share of senior members. The Brazilian Senate followed them with a considerable level of seniority. As a consequence of a series of institutional reforms based on the 1994 constitution, the Argentine Senate differed from the other three cases as being a much junior chamber.
    Resumen:
      Esta nota de investigación intenta contribuir a los estudios comparativos sobre carreras legislativas, a través del estudio de los miembros, hasta ahora poco investigados, de cuatro cámaras altas de América Latina: los Senados de Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. La presente nota examina tanto los rasgos sociales básicos de la élite parlamentaria –edad, género, nivel de educación y carreras universitarias- como las carreras políticas de los legisladores. El objetivo que persigue es comprobar si las mencionadas cámaras altas están compuestas por un mayor número de miembros senior que las respectivas cámaras bajas, es decir, por miembros que no solamente son más viejos, más adinerados y más educados, sino que cuentan con una experiencia política mayor. Como resultado, los Senados de Chile y Uruguay se destacan por tener la proporción más alta de miembros senior, a los que les sigue el Senado brasileño con un nivel bastante considerable. En cambio, como consecuencia de una serie de reformas institucionales basadas en la Constitución de 1994, el Senado argentino difiere de los tres anteriores por tener una cámara alta mucho más jóven.

Review Essays

    Kingstone, Peter R., 1964-
  • After the Washington Consensus: The Limits to Democratization and Development in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kuczynski Godard, Pedro-Pablo, 1938-, ed. After the Washington consensus: restarting growth and reform in Latin America.
    • Williamson, John, 1937-, ed.
    • Santiso, Javier. Political economy of emerging markets: actors, institutions, and financial crises in Latin America.
    • Green, Duncan. Silent revolution: the rise and crisis of market economics in Latin America.
    • Gustafson, Lowell S., ed. Economic performance under democratic regimes in Latin America in the twenty-first century.
    • Pattnayak, Satya R., ed.
    • Latin America -- Economic policy.
    • Capital market -- Latin America.
    Wilson, Robert Hines.
  • Governance and Reform of the State: Signs of Progress?
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    Subject Headings:
    • Montero, Alfred P., 1969-, ed. Decentralization and democracy in Latin America.
    • Samuels, David, 1967-, ed.
    • Gibson, Edward L., ed. Federalism and democracy in Latin America.
    • Eaton, Kent, 1968- Politics beyond the capital: the design of subnational institutions in South America.
    • Campbell, Tim. Quiet revolution: decentralization and the rise of political participation in Latin American cities.
    • Campbell, Tim, ed. Leadership and innovation in subnational government: case studies from Latin America.
    • Fuhr, Harald, ed.
    • Decentralization in government -- Latin America.
    • Federal government -- Latin America.
    Davis, Diane E., 1953-
  • The Age of Insecurity: Violence and Social Disorder in the New Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bailey, John J., ed. Organized crime & democratic governability: Mexico and the U.S.-Mexican borderlands.
    • Godson, Roy, 1942-, ed.
    • Bodemer, Klaus, ed. Violencia y regulación de conflictos en América Latina.
    • Kurtenbach, Sabine, ed.
    • Meschkat, Klaus, ed.
    • Coyle, Philip E. (Philip Edward), 1961- Nàyari history, politics, and violence: from flowers to ash.
    • Feld, Claudia. Del estrado a la pantalla: las imágenes del juicio a los ex comandantes en Argentina.
    • Huggins, Martha Knisely, 1944- Violence workers: police torturers and murderers reconstruct Brazilian atrocities.
    • Haritos-Fatouros, Mika, 1930-
    • Zimbardo, Philip G.
    • Moser, Caroline O. N. Urban poor perceptions of violence and exclusion in Colombia.
    • McIlwaine, Cathy, 1965-
    • Rotker, Susana, 1954-, ed. Citizens of fear: urban violence in Latin America.
    • Goldman, Katherine, ed.
    • Organized crime -- Mexico.
    • Violence -- Latin America -- Congresses.
    Welch, Cliff.
  • Movement Histories: A Preliminary Historiography of the Brazil's Landless Laborers' Movement (MST)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stédile, João Pedro. Brava gente: a trajetória do MST e a luta pela terra no Brasil.
    • Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano.
    • Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano. Formação do MST no Brasil.
    • Morissawa, Mitsue. História da luta pela terra e o MST.
    • Harnecker, Marta. Sin tierra: construyendo movimiento social.
    • Branford, Sue. Cutting the wire: the story of the landless movement in Brazil.
    • Rocha, Jan.
    • Wright, Angus Lindsay. To inherit the earth: the landless movement and the struggle for a new Brazil.
    • Wolford, Wendy.
    • Fanelli, Luca, 1976- Scelta della terra: studio di un insediamento rurale del Movimento Sem Terra in Brasile.
    • Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra (Brazil) -- History.
    Gundermann, Christian A., 1965-
  • Occult Couches in the Pampa: Reviewing Three Recent Books on Twentieth-Century Argentina
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    Subject Headings:
    • Plotkin, Mariano Ben, 1961-, ed. Argentina on the couch: psychiatry, state, and society, 1880 to the present.
    • Nicholson, Melanie, 1955- Evil, madness, and the occult in Argentine poetry.
    • Plotkin, Mariano Ben, 1961- Freud in the Pampas: the emergence and development of a psychoanalytic culture in Argentina.
    • Psychiatry -- Argentina -- History.
    • Argentine poetry -- 20th century -- History and criticism.
    Purnell, Jennie, 1957-
  • People, Religion, and Nation in Mexico from Independence through the Revolution
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    Subject Headings:
    • Archer, Christon I., 1940-, ed. Birth of modern Mexico, 1780-1824.
    • Connaughton Hanley, Brian Francis. Clerical ideology in a revolutionary age: the Guadalajara church and the idea of the Mexican nation, 1788-1853.
    • Healey, Mark Alan, 1968-, tr.
    • Agostoni, Claudia. Monuments of progress: modernization and public health in Mexico City, 1876-1910.
    • Schell, Patience A. (Patience Alexandra), 1970- Church and state education in revolutionary Mexico City.
    • Boyer, Christopher R. (Christopher Robert) Becoming campesinos: politics, identity, and agrarian struggle in postrevolutionary Michoacán, 1920-1935.
    • Butler, Matthew. Popular piety and political identity in Mexico's Cristero Rebellion: Michoacán, 1927-29.
    • Brewster, Keith, 1956- Militarism, ethnicity, and politics in the Sierra Norte de Puebla, 1917-1930.
    • Mexico -- History -- 19th century.
    • Church and state -- Mexico -- Guadalajara -- History -- 19th century.
    Napolitano, Valentina.
  • Medical Profiling, Justice and Recognition: Renewals for Hope in Enduring Struggles
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    Subject Headings:
    • Armus, Diego, ed. Disease in the history of modern Latin America: from malaria to AIDS.
    • Ayora Díaz, Steffan Igor. Globalización, conocimiento y poder: médicos locales y sus luchas por el reconocimiento en Chiapas.
    • Brandes, Stanley H. Staying sober in Mexico City.
    • Briggs, Charles L., 1953- Stories in the time of cholera: racial profiling during a medical nightmare.
    • Mantini-Briggs, Clara, 1956-
    • Kunow, Marianna Appel, 1958- Maya medicine: traditional healing in Yucatan.
    • Molina, Carlos Gerardo, ed. Health services in Latin America and Asia.
    • Núñez del Arco, José, ed.
    • Osorio Carranza, Rosa María. Entender y atender la enfermedad: los saberes maternos frente a los padecimientos infantiles.
    • Social medicine -- Latin America.
    • Medicine -- Mexico -- Chiapas.
    Jones, Gareth A., 1964-
  • Culture and Politics in the "Latin American" City
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hernández, Ramona. Mobility of workers under advanced capitalism: Dominican migration to the United States.
    • Myers, David J., 1940-, ed. Capital city politics in Latin America: democratization and empowerment.
    • Dietz, Henry A., ed.
    • Napolitano, Valentina. Migration, mujercitas, and medicine men: living in urban Mexico.
    • Schönwälder, Gerd, 1958- Linking civil society and the state: urban popular movements, the left, and local government in Peru, 1980-1992.
    • Valle, Victor M. Latino metropolis.
    • Torres, Rodolfo D., 1949-
    • Alien labor, Dominican -- United States.
    • Municipal government -- Latin America.

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