Latin American Research Review

Latin American Research Review
Volume 40, Number 2, 2005

CONTENTS

    Alemán, Eduardo, 1969-
    Tsebelis, George.
  • The Origins of Presidential Conditional Agenda-Setting Power in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Executive power -- Latin America.
    • Presidents -- Latin America.
    • Legislative amendments -- Latin America.
    Abstract:
      This paper examines the origins of amendatory vetoes in Latin America and shows why presidents' ability to present a redrafted bill after congressional passage gives them considerable power to affect legislation. The paper begins with a historical account that illustrates the workings of amendatory observations in nineteenth-century Latin America—the passage of the Electoral Law of 1874in Chile. Next, it specifies the degree to which different constitutional procedures allow presidents to redraft legislation and shows why the power to introduce amendatory observations provides greater discretion than the power of the better-known block veto, regardless of override thresholds. Lastly, the paper traces the origins of amendatory observations back to the first wave of constitution writing that followed the wars of independence. Our findings challenge prior classifications of veto powers in Latin America and highlight the positive agenda-setting power afforded to the president at the last stage of the lawmaking process.
    Resumen:
      Este trabajo examina los orígenes del veto sustitutivo en América Latina y muestra por qué la habilidad de responder con una propuesta de ley modificada luego de que el congreso haya pasado su versión, suministra a los presidentes suficiente poder para influir en la legislación. El trabajo comienza con una narración histórica que ilustra el funcionamiento del veto sustitutivo en el siglo XIX en América Latina— la aprobación de la Ley Electoral chilena de 1874. Luego, especifica cuán lejos pueden llegar los presidentes bajo diferentes procedimientos constitucionales y muestra por qué el poder para introducir vetos sustitutivos provee mayor autoridad que el poder del más conocido veto total. Por último, el trabajo traza los orígenes constitucionales del veto sustitutivo comenzando con las versiones iniciales escritas luego de las guerras de independencia. Los resultados desafían las clasificaciones anteriores del poder del veto en América Latina destacando la influencia del veto sustitutivo en la agenda parlamentaria, el cual proporciona al presidente un poder crucial en la última fase del proceso legislativo.
    Boas, Taylor C.
  • Television and Neopopulism in Latin America: Media Effects in Brazil and Peru
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    Subject Headings:
    • Television in politics -- Latin America.
    • Populism -- Latin America.
    • Presidents -- Brazil -- Election -- 1989.
    • Presidents -- Peru -- Election -- 2000.
    • Presidents -- Peru -- Election -- 2001.
    Abstract:
      Several Latin American countries have experienced the emergence of neopopulist politicians who eschew ties to traditional parties and orient their campaigns toward the atomized poor. This article examines the role of television in the electoral success of these politicians. Using survey data, I assess the impact of television exposure on vote choice in the 1989 election of Fernando Collor de Mello in Brazil, the 2000 election of Alberto Fujimori in Peru, and the 2001 election of Alejandro Toledo in Peru. These cases achieve variation on two predictors of media effects: the presence of a neopopulist outsider and biased television coverage of the campaign. Statistical analysis confirms our theoretical expectations of media effects in the first two elections (where coverage was biased) but not in the third. These findings suggest that bias is the more reliable predictor of television's impact on Latin American presidential elections, rather than the presence of a neopopulist candidate.
    Resumen:
      Varios países latinoamericanos han experimentado el surgimiento de políticos neopopulistas que evaden conexión alguna con los partidos tradicionales y orientan sus campañas hacia poblaciones pobres, no organizadas. Este artículo examina el rol de la televisión en el éxito electoral de dichos políticos. En base a resultados de encuestas se determina el efecto de la cobertura televisiva en la definición del voto en la elección de Fernando Collor de Mello en Brasil en 1989, Alberto Fujimori en Perú en 2000, y Alejandro Toledo en Perú en 2001. Estos casos varían con respecto a dos variables indicativas de efectos mediáticos: la presencia de un candidato neopopulista independiente y una cobertura televisiva sesgada de la campaña electoral. Análisis estadísticos confirman las expectativas teóricas sobre efectos mediáticos en las dos primeras elecciones, donde la cobertura fue sesgada, pero no en la tercera. Este hallazgo sugiere que la cobertura sesgada, y no la presencia de un candidato neopopulista, es la variable indicativa más confiable de un efecto televisivo en las elecciones presidenciales latinoamericanas.
    Hite, Amy.
    Viterna, Jocelyn S.
  • Gendering Class in Latin America: How Women Effect and Experience Change in the Class Structure
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    Subject Headings:
    • Social classes -- Latin America.
    • Women -- Latin America -- Economic conditions.
    • Women -- Latin America -- Social conditions.
    Abstract:
      Female participation in the Latin American paid labor force is increasing dramatically. Building upon Portes and Hoffman's (2003) model, we use occupational data to measure gendered changes in Latin America's class structure over the last two decades of economic restructuring and adjustment and to investigate the causes and consequences of these regional patterns. Our results suggest two important conclusions. First, economic adjustment and restructuring is increasing women's parity with men in terms of class position largely as a consequence of the deterioration of men's once-privileged location in the class structure. Second, recent economic adjustment and restructuring has altered power relations between social classes in Latin America in part because it has inspired both qualitative and quantitative changes in the gendered composition of Latin American labor. The number of women entering the work force, and the labor conditions suffered particularly by women workers, has resulted in both the literal and figurative "emasculation" of the Formal Proletariat. These preliminary findings make clear the explanatory benefits of including gender in analyses of changes in the Latin American class structure.
    Resumen:
      En América Latina, la participación de la mujer en la mano de obra remunerada está aumentando de manera dramática. Basándonos en el modelo de Portes y Hoffman (2003), usamos datos ocupacionales para medir los cambios producidos por factores de género en la estructura de clase de América Latina en las últimas dos décadas de reestructuración y ajuste económicos; y a su vez para investigar las causas y las consecuencias de estos patrones a nivel regional. Nuestros resultados sugieren dos importantes conclusiones. Primero, la reestructuración y ajuste económicos están incrementando la paridad de las mujeres con los hombres en términos de posicionamiento de clase, en gran medida como consecuencia del deterioro de la posición de los hombres, ya no tan privilegiada, dentro de la estructura de clase. Segundo, el reciente ajuste y reestructuración económicos han alterado las relaciones de poder entre clases sociales en América Latina en parte porque han inspirado cambios cuantitativos y cualitativos en la composición de género de la oferta de trabajo latinoamericana. El número de mujeres que entran al mercado laboral, junto con las condiciones laborales sufridas particularmente por las mujeres, ha resultado en la "castración" —literal y figurativa— del proletariado formal. Estos hallazgos preliminares aclaran los beneficios de la inclusión de género dentro de los análisis del cambio de la estructura de clases en América Latina.
    McGuire, James W. (James William)
    Frankel, Laura B.
  • Mortality Decline in Cuba, 1900-1959: Patterns, Comparisons, and Causes
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    Subject Headings:
    • Infants -- Cuba -- Mortality -- History -- 20th century.
    • Life expectancy -- Cuba -- History -- 20th century.
    • Health services accessibility -- Cuba -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      Revolutionary Cuba since 1959 has outpaced most other Latin American countries at raising life expectancy and reducing infant mortality. Pre-revolutionary Cuba from 1900 to 1959 did even better, however, outperforming all other Latin American countries for which data are available. Pre-revolutionary Cuba became Latin America's unlikely champion of mortality decline despite experiencing slow economic growth and high income inequality, a record that is inconsistent with the "wealthier is healthier" interpretation of mortality reduction. It also achieved this distinction despite being ruled by governments that are sometimes portrayed as corrupt, personalistic, patronage-ridden, subordinate to U.S. business interests, and neglectful, at best, of the exploited and downtrodden. We attribute pre-revolutionary Cuba's rapid mortality decline to its health care system's accessibility to a large fraction of the poor and to features of the island's history, geography, labor union movement, and political system that contributed to this accessibility.
    Resumen:
      Desde 1959, Cuba revolucionaria ha superado a casi todos los países latinoamericanos en el incremento de la expectativa de vida y la reducción de la mortalidad infantil. Sin embargo, desde 1900 hasta 1959, Cuba pre-revolucionaria fue más exitosa aún, superando a todos los países latinoamericanos con los que se cuenta información. Cuba pre-revolucionaria se convirtió en el campeón latinoamericano del declive de la mortalidad a pesar de sufrir un lento crecimiento económico y una alta inequidad en el ingreso; un récord que es inconsistente con la interpretación "más rico, más saludable" sobre la reducción de la mortalidad. A su vez, Cuba alcanzó esa distinción a pesar de haber estado bajo gobiernos en muchos casos tildados de corruptos, personalistas, manejados por el patronazgo político, subordinados a intereses norteamericanos, y negligentes, en el mejor de los casos, de los explotados y de los oprimidos. Atribuimos este rápido declive de la mortalidad en Cuba pre-revolucionaria a un alto nivel de acceso al sistema de salud por un gran segmento de los pobres, y a las características de la historia de la isla, su geografía, su movimiento obrero y su sistema político.

Research Reports and Notes

    Núñez Errázuriz, Javier.
  • Signed with an X: Methodology and Data Sources for Analyzing the Evolution of Literacy in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1900-1950
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    Subject Headings:
    • Literacy -- Latin America -- History -- 20th century.
    • Literacy -- Caribbean Area -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This article studies the evolution of literacy in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1900 to 1950. A methodology is developed to overcome the lack of census data for half of the countries in the region for 1900, as well as the lack of comparability of the existing census data. Combining census data and literacy data gathered from marriage registrations, military recruits, crime statistics, and urban censuses, adult literacy estimates for twenty-two countries of the region are provided for 1900, which offer a new and more complete portrait of human capital formation from 1900 to 1950. There are wide variations across the region in literacy rates in 1900, as well as in the increase of literacy from 1900 to 1950, the latter being associated with variations in the expansion of primary education enrollment in different Latin American countries. However, countries also differ in their success in transforming school enrollment into adult literacy, which is partly associated with the prevalence of Amerindian populations.
    Resumen:
      Este artículo estudia la evolución de la alfabetización en América Latina y el Caribe desde 1900 hasta 1950. Desarrollo una metodología para superar la falta de datos del censo para la mitad de los países de la región para el año 1900 y también para aumentar la posibilidad de comparación de los datos en los censos existentes. Combino datos de los censos con datos sobre alfabetización obtenidos a través de registros matrimoniales, reclutamientos militares, estadísticas criminales, censos urbanos y estimaciones sobre la alfabetización en adultos para veintidós países de la región provistos para el año 1900. Esta combinación ofrece un nuevo y más completo retrato de la formación de capital humano desde 1900 hasta 1950. A lo largo de la región existen grandes variaciones en las tasas de alfabetización en 1900, así como también en el incremento de la alfabetización desde 1900 hasta 1950; esta última asociada a variaciones en el registro de alumnos en la educación primaria a lo largo de los países de la región. Sin embargo, los países también difieren en cuanto a su éxito en transformar registro escolar en alfabetización adulta, la cual a su vez está parcialmente asociada con la prevalencia de población amerindia.

Review Essays

    Green, W. John, 1963-
  • Guerillas, Soldiers, Paramilitaries, Assassins, Narcos, and Gringos: The Unhappy Prospects for Peace and Democracy in Colombia
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    Subject Headings:
    • Crandall, Russell, 1971- Driven by drugs: U.S. policy toward Colombia.
    • Leech, Garry M. Killing peace: Colombia's conflict and the failure of U.S. intervention.
    • Kirk, Robin. More terrible than death: massacres, drugs, and America's war in Colombia.
    • Ardila Galvis, Constanza. Heart of war in Colombia.
    • Braun, Herbert, 1948- Our guerrillas, our sidewalks: a journey into the violence of Colombia.
    • Richani, Nazih. Systems of violence: the political economy of war and peace in Colombia.
    • Roldán, Mary, 1959- Blood and fire: la violencia in Antioquia Colombia, 1946-53.
    • Giugale, Marcelo, ed. Colombia: the economic foundation of peace.
    • Lafourcade, O., ed.
    • Luff, Connie, 1953-, ed.
    • Sáenz Rovner, Eduardo. Colombia años 50: industriales, política y diplomacia.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Colombia.
    • Drug traffic -- Government policy -- Colombia.
    Stevens, Donald Fithian, 1953-
  • Patriots, Poverty, Taxes, and Death: Recent Work on Mexican History, 1750-1850
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    Subject Headings:
    • Vincent, Theodore G. Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico's first Black Indian president.
    • Fowler, Will, 1966- Tornel and Santa Anna: the writer and the caudillo, Mexico, 1795-1853.
    • Warren, Richard A., 1961- Vagrants and citizens: politics and the masses in Mexico City from Colony to Republic.
    • Arrom, Silvia Marina, 1949- Containing the poor: the Mexico City Poor House, 1774-1871.
    • Marichal, Carlos, ed. De colonia a nación: impuestos y política en México, 1750-1860.
    • Marino, Daniela, ed.
    • Zárate Toscano, Verónica. Nobles ante la muerte en México: actitudes, ceremonias y memoria, 1750-1850.
    • Voekel, Pamela, 1963- Alone before God: the religious origins of modernity in Mexico.
    • Mexico -- Politics and government -- 19th century.
    • Tornel y Mendívil, José María, 1789-1853.
    Foster, David William.
  • Recent Chicana/o Cultural Criticism
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    Subject Headings:
    • Arredondo, Gabriela F., ed. Chicana feminisms: a critical reader.
    • Brady, Mary Pat, 1961- Extinct lands, temporal geographies: Chicana literature and the urgency of space.
    • Brown, Monica, 1969- Gang nation: delinquent citizens in Puerto Rican, Chicano, and Chicana narratives.
    • Martín-Rodríguez, Manuel M. Life in search of readers: reading (in) Chicano/a literature.
    • Mendoza, Louis Gerard, 1960- Historia: the literary making of Chicana and Chicano history.
    • Feminism -- United States.
    • American literature -- Mexican American authors -- History and criticism.
    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle.
  • Healers, Healing, and Child Well-being: Ideologies, Institutions, and Health in Latin America and the Caribbean
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    Subject Headings:
    • Palmer, Steven Paul. From popular medicine to medical populism: doctors, healers, and public power in Costa Rica, 1800-1940.
    • Peard, Julyan G. Race, place, and medicine: the idea of the tropics in nineteenth-century Brazilian medicine.
    • Sowell, David. Tale of healer Miguel Perdomo Neira: medicine, ideologies, and power in the nineteenth-century Andes.
    • Fernández Olmos, Margarite, ed. Healing cultures: art and religion as curative practices in the Caribbean and its diaspora.
    • Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth, ed.
    • Bartell, Ernest J., 1932-, ed. Child in Latin America: health, development, and rights.
    • O'Donnell, Alejandro, ed.
    • Hecht, Tobias, 1964-, ed. Minor omissions: children in Latin American history and society.
    • Medicine -- Costa Rica -- History.
    • Escola Tropicalista Bahiana -- History -- 19th century.
    Monteón, Michael, 1946-
  • Biography and Latin American History
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    Subject Headings:
    • León Portilla, Miguel. Bernardino de Sahagún: first anthropologist.
    • Mixco, Mauricio J., tr.
    • Dulles, John W. F. Sobral Pinto, "the conscience of Brazil": leading the attack against Vargas (1930-1945)
    • Garner, Paul H. Porfirio Díaz.
    • Jaksic, Ivan, 1954- Andrés Bello: scholarship and nation-building in nineteenth-century Latin America.
    • Racine, Karen, 1967- Francisco de Miranda: a transatlantic life in the Age of Revolution.
    • Sahagún, Bernardino de, d. 1590.
    • Pinto, Heráclito Sobral, 1893-
    Philip, George D. E.
  • Democracy and Development in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Biglaiser, Glen, 1963- Guardians of the nation? economists, generals, and economic reform in Latin America.
    • Corrales, Javier, 1966- Presidents without parties: the politics of economic reform in Argentina and Venezuela in the 1990s.
    • Eaton, Kent, 1968- Politicians and economic reform in new democracies: Argentina and the Philippines in the 1990s.
    • González Anaya, José Antonio, 1967-, ed. Latin American macroeconomic reform: the second stage.
    • Llanos, Mariana, 1967- Privatization and democracy in Argentina: an analysis of President-Congress relations.
    • Nun, José. Democracy: government of the people or government of the politicians?
    • Payne, J. Mark. Democracies in development: politics and reform in Latin America.
    • Pérez, Orlando J., ed. Post-invasion Panama: the challenges of democratization in the New World Order.
    • Prevost, Gary, ed. Neoliberalism and neopanamericanism: the view from Latin America.
    • Oliva, Carlos, 1955-, ed.
    • Weyland, Kurt Gerhard. Politics of market reform in fragile democracies: Argentina, Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela.
    • Southern Cone of South America -- Economic policy.
    • Argentina -- Economic policy.
    Rock, David, 1945-
  • Argentina: A Hundred and Fifty Years of Democratic Praxis
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    Subject Headings:
    • Alonso, Paula, 1964- Between revolution and the ballot box: the origins of the Argentine Radical Party in the 1890s.
    • Auyero, Javier. Poor people's politics: Peronist survival networks and the legacy of Evita.
    • Auyero, Javier. Contentious lives: two Argentine women, two protests, and the quest for recognition.
    • Bertoni, Lilia Ana. Patriotas, cosmopolitas y nacionalistas: la construcción de la nacionalidad argentina a fines del siglo XIX.
    • Hora, Roy. Landowners of the Argentine Pampas: a social and political history, 1860-1945.
    • Lewis, Colin M. Argentina: a short history.
    • Karush, Matthew B. (Matthew Benjamin), 1968- Workers or citizens: democracy and identity in Rosario, Argentina (1912-1930)
    • Romero, Luis Alberto. History of Argentina in the twentieth century.
    • Brennan, James P., 1955-, tr.
    • Unión Cívica Radical -- History.
    • Poor -- Argentina -- Buenos Aires -- Political activity.
    Tatum, Charles Edward.
  • Recent Books on Latin American and Latino/a Popular Culture
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    Subject Headings:
    • Habell-Pallán, Michelle, ed. Latino/a popular culture.
    • Romero, Mary, ed.
    • Bueno, Eva Paulino, ed. Imagination beyond nation: Latin American popular culture.
    • Caesar, Terry, ed.
    • Beezley, William H., ed. Latin American popular culture: an introduction.
    • Curcio, Linda Ann, ed.
    • Stavans, Ilan. Riddle of Cantinflas: essays on Hispanic popular culture.
    • Hispanic Americans -- Ethnic identity.
    • Popular culture -- Latin America.
    Wampler, Brian.
  • Reconstructing Brazil: Institutional Reform, Economic Liberalism, and Pluralism
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    Subject Headings:
    • Abers, Rebecca. Inventing local democracy: grassroots politics in Brazil.
    • Avritzer, Leonardo. Democracy and the public space in Latin America.
    • Font, Mauricio A. (Mauricio Augusto) Transforming Brazil: a reform era in perspective.
    • Goertzel, Ted George. Fernando Henrique Cardoso: reinventing democracy in Brazil.
    • Kingstone, Peter R., 1964-, ed. Democratic Brazil: actors, institutions, and processes.
    • Power, Timothy J. (Timothy Joseph), 1962-, ed.
    • Power, Timothy J. (Timothy Joseph), 1962- Political right in postauthoritarian Brazil: elites, institutions, and democratization.
    • O'Dougherty, Maureen, 1956- Consumption intensified: the politics of middle-class daily life in Brazil.
    • Ottmann, Goetz Frank. Lost for words? Brazilian liberationism in the 1990s.
    • Porto Alegre (Brazil) -- Politics and government -- Citizen participation.
    • Democracy -- Latin America.
    Montero, Alfred P., 1969-
  • From Democracy to Development: The Political Economy of Post-Neoliberal Reform in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Basañes, Federico, ed. Second-generation reforms in infrastructure services.
    • Willig, Robert D., 1947-, ed.
    • Horowitz, Shale Asher, ed. Political economy of international financial crisis: interest groups, ideologies, and institutions.
    • Heo, Uk, 1962-, ed.
    • Pagano, Marco, ed. Defusing default: incentives and institutions.
    • Kumar Saha, Suranjit, 1945-, ed. Globalisation and sustainable development in Latin America: perspectives on the new economic order.
    • Parker, David, 1949 Sept. 28-, ed.
    • Schamis, Hector E. Re-forming the State: the politics of privatization in Latin America and Europe.
    • Gill, Indermit Singh, 1961-, ed. Crafting labor policy: techniques and lessons from Latin America.
    • Montenegro, Claudio, ed.
    • Dömeland, Dörte, 1971-, ed.
    • Infrastructure (Economics) -- Latin America.
    • International finance.
    Long, Ryan Fred, 1971-
  • Narrative, Criticism, and Politics: Negotiating Latin American Transition
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    Subject Headings:
    • Vargas Llosa, Mario, 1936- Letters to a young novelist.
    • Wimmer, Natasha, tr.
    • Muñoz, Braulio, 1946- Story teller: Mario Vargas Llosa between civilization and barbarism.
    • López, Kimberle S. Latin American novels of the Conquest: reinventing the New World.
    • Hopenhayn, Martín. No apocalypse, no integration: modernism and postmodernism in Latin America.
    • Tompkins, Cynthia, 1958-, tr.
    • Horan, Elizabeth, 1956-, tr.
    • Levinson, Brett, 1959- Ends of literature: the Latin American "boom" in the neoliberal marketplace.
    • Fiction -- Authorship.
    • Vargas Llosa, Mario, 1936- -- Criticism and interpretation.

Contributors




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