Latin American Research Review

Latin American Research Review
Volume 40, Number 1, 2005

CONTENTS

    McSweeney, Kendra.
    Arps, Shahna.
  • A "Demographic Turnaround": The Rapid Growth of the Indigenous Populations in Lowland Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Indigenous peoples -- Latin America -- Population.
    • Demographic transition -- Latin America.
    Abstract:
      In contrast to the rich scholarship documenting the traumatic post-contact destruction of indigenous populations in the Latin American tropics, little is known about their contemporary population dynamics. What accounts for the "demographic turnaround" reported for some groups? How widespread is population recovery, and what are its implications for indigenous political resurgence? We address these questions by compiling recent (post-1980) demographic indicators for over one hundred lowland indigenous populations. Despite remarkable socioeconomic and cultural diversity among these groups, we find compelling evidence that they nevertheless share a common trajectory of very rapid growth over the past two decades, especially in contrast to non-indigenous populations. We briefly review the implications of their dramatic physical resurgence and show how closer attention to this phenomenon is overdue. We discuss the relevance of indigenous societies' recovery to scholarship and praxis in the areas of health and education, cultural and political gains, and demographic theory.
    Resumen:
      A diferencia de la vasta literatura académica que documenta la traumática destrucción pos-contacto de las poblaciones indígenas de los trópicos latinoamericanos, muy poco se conoce sobre sus actuales dinámicas demográficas. ¿Cómo se explica el cambio demográfico reportado por algunos de estos grupos?, ¿qué tan extensa es la recuperación de la población y cuáles son sus implicancias para el resurgimiento de la política indígena? Abordamos estas preguntas a través de la compilación de recientes indicadores demográficos (pos-1980) de más de 100 poblaciones indígenas de tierras bajas. A pesar de la gran diversidad cultural y socioeconómica que existe entre los grupos, encontramos evidencia sustancial de que éstos comparten una trayectoria común de rápido crecimiento en las dos últimas décadas, especialmente en comparación a poblaciones no indígenas. Describimos brevemente las implicaciones de su dramático resurgimiento físico y señalamos la necesidad de dedicar más atención a este fenómeno. En particular, discutimos la relevancia que la recuperación de las sociedades indígenas tiene para la investigación académica y para la práctica en áreas de salud, educación, cultura política, así como también para el desarrollo de la teoría demográfica.
    Hiskey, Jonathan T.
  • The Political Economy of Subnational Economic Recovery in Mexico
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mexico -- Economic conditions -- 1994- -- Regional disparities.
    • Mexican states -- Economic policy -- 1994-
    • Mexican states -- Politics and government -- 1988-
    Abstract:
      In an era when development processes seem best characterized by a continuing cycle of macroeconomic crisis and recovery, a critical question for students of the political economy of development concerns identifying the factors that facilitate recovery from economic shock. Recent work on this question has moved beyond a focus on specific macroeconomic policy adjustments toward analysis of the role political institutions play in shaping recovery processes. Applying this research to the experiences of Mexico's thirty-one states following the country's 1995 economic crisis, I identify significant variations in states' abilities to recover from crisis and link those variations in part to the country's uneven electoral transition to a multiparty democracy that coincided with the crisis. With more and more governmental activities increasingly being decentralized to lower levels of government, these findings provide an indication of the important role subnational variations in political environments can play in shaping the broader political and economic outcomes of Latin America's "dual transition."
    Resumen:
      En tiempos en los cuales los procesos de desarrollo parecieran estar caracterizados principalmente por un ciclo continuo de crisis macroeconómica y de recuperación, una pregunta crítica surge para los estudiantes de economía política del desarrollo: ¿cuáles son los factores que mejor le permiten a una economía recuperarse de un shock económico? Estudios recientes sobre este tema han desviado su atención desde el estudio de políticas de ajuste macroeconómico hacia el análisis de los tipos de instituciones políticas que un país posee para enfrentar las consecuencias sociales de una aguda depresión económica. Este artículo lleva esta investigación más allá, a través de la evaluación de las variaciones en las dimensiones institucionales y su impacto en los índices de recuperación económica subnacional. Basándome en los procesos de recuperación de los treinta y un estados de México posteriores a las crisis económica de 1995, identifico variaciones significativas que existen en las diversas capacidades con las que los estados contaron para recuperarse de la crisis; y de este modo ofrezco apoyo preliminar para la tesis que propone que la recuperación de una crisis económica está en parte determinada por la capacidad que las instituciones políticas tienen para manejar los conflictos que surgen casi inevitablemente durante períodos de crisis.
    Siavelis, Peter.
  • Electoral System, Coalitional Disintegration, and the Future of Chile's Concertación
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    Subject Headings:
    • Chile -- Politics and government -- 1988-
    • Coalition governments -- Chile.
    • Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia (Chile)
    Abstract:
      While there is much disagreement concerning the political effects of Chile's two-member district binominal election system, most agree that it provides strong incentives for the formation and maintenance of coalitions. This article takes on these assumptions, contending that the electoral system's coalition-inducing tendencies are actually quite context dependent. Focusing primarily on the governing Concertación coalition and relying on analyses of relative levels of electoral support among parties, a "reward" insurance policy for electoral losers, and the timing and sequencing of elections, this article outlines the conditions under which the coalition-enhancing tendencies of the electoral system are at their strongest and their weakest. It finds that these variables align to provide a less than propitious environment for the maintenance of the Concertación coalition in the lead up to the 2005 elections. In theoretical terms, the article challenges direct and mechanistic connections between electoral formulae and party outcomes, arguing that we should not be surprised when subtle contextual variations cause theorized outcomes not to occur. These findings contribute to an emerging consensus that many of the theorized rules on the connection between electoral and party systems are more complex and context dependent than is usually supposed and should be applied with greater caution.
    Resumen:
      Mientras los efectos políticos del sistema electoral binominal chileno (de dos escaños por distrito) han sido arduamente debatidos, la mayoría concuerda en que éste provee fuertes incentivos para la formación y el mantenimiento de coaliciones. Este artículo parte de estos supuestos argumentando que las tendencias de coalición inducidas por dicho sistema electoral son, en realidad, altamente dependientes del contexto. Centrándose principalmente en la Concertación (coalición gobernante) y basándose en análisis sobre valores relativos de apoyo electoral entre partidos, en una póliza de seguro en forma de "recompensa" para los perdedores electorales, y por último, en la sincronización y secuenciación de las elecciones, este artículo esboza las condiciones bajo las cuales las tendencias hacia el mejoramiento de la coalición en el sistema electoral se hallan en su punto más fuerte y más débil. El artículo encuentra que estas variables se alinean para proveer un ambiente menos que propicio para el mantenimiento de la Concertación en el poder hasta las elecciones del 2005. En términos teóricos, el artículo desafía asociaciones directas y mecánicas entre fórmulas electorales y resultados partidarios, argumentando que no debemos sorprendernos cuando mínimas variaciones contextuales desafían las predicciones teóricas. Estos resultados se suman al consenso emergente que sostiene que ciertas reglas teóricas sobre la conexión entre sistemas electorales y de partidos son más complejas y dependientes del contexto que lo usualmente reconocido, y por lo tanto, deben ser aplicadas con más cuidado.
    VanWey, Leah Karin.
    Tucker, Catherine M.
    McConnell, Eileen Diaz.
  • Community Organization, Migration, and Remittances in Oaxaca
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    Subject Headings:
    • Emigrant remittances -- Mexico -- Oaxaca (State)
    • Community organization -- Mexico -- Oaxaca (State)
    • Zapotec Indians -- Mexico -- Oaxaca (State) -- Social conditions.
    • Zapotec Indians -- Mexico -- Oaxaca (State) -- Economic conditions.
    Abstract:
      Researchers studying migration and development have argued over the potential that migration and associated remittances have to improve the economic and social conditions in origin communities. Past research on migration from indigenous communities in Oaxaca has similarly questioned the compatibility of traditional governance systems with high migration rates. We argue, using evidence from four Zapotec communities in rural Oaxaca, that communities can use the organizational capacity of traditional governance systems to access remittances from migrants for the benefit of the community as a whole. Communities can require payment from migrants in lieu of communal labor requirements (tequio) and may directly solicit remittances from migrants for community projects. The extent to which they enforce these requests depends on the existing organizational strength in the community. These findings imply that strong forms of community organization can make the difference between migration contributing to underdevelopment and migration contributing to development.
    Resumen:
      Especialistas sobre migración y desarrollo han estudiado el potencial que la migración y sus remesas asociadas brindan al mejoramiento de las condiciones sociales y políticas en las comunidades de origen. Asimismo, estudios previos sobre migración de comunidades indígenas en Oaxaca han cuestionado la compatibilidad de sistemas tradicionales de gobierno y altas tasas de migración. Sobre la base de evidencia de cuatro comunidades zapotecas en la zona rural de Oaxaca, sostenemos que las comunidades pueden utilizar la capacidad institucional de sistemas de gobierno tradicionales para acceder a remesas en favor de la comunidad en general. Las comunidades pueden exigir a los emigrantes pagos en lugar de participar en trabajos comunitarios obligatorios (tequio) y también pueden solicitar remesas a los emigrantes para proyectos comunitarios. El grado hasta el cual las comunidades exigen el cumplimiento de estos requisitos depende de la fuerza organizativa de la comunidad. Los resultados de esta investigación implican que la solidez organizacional puede definir a la migración como beneficiosa o perjudicial para el desarrollo comunitario.
    Child, Jack.
  • The Politics and Semiotics of the Smallest Icons of Popular Culture: Latin American Postage Stamps
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    Subject Headings:
    • Postage stamp design -- Political aspects -- Latin America.
    • Postage stamps as propaganda -- Latin America.
    • Semiotics.
    Abstract:
      This article uses an interdisciplinary approach to present and analyze information on the smallest manifestations of popular culture in Latin American countries: postage stamps. The disciplines involved are semiotics (the linguistic study of signs), history, politics (internal and international), and popular culture. The project studies how these postage stamps carry significant messages, including expressions of nationalism, politics (national and international), propaganda, and cultural identity. The article begins with an overview of Latin American postage stamps, with an emphasis on internal and international politics. The latter category focuses on several cases of inter-country tension in which postage stamps have played a role.
    Resumen:
      Este artículo utiliza un enfoque interdisciplinario para presentar y analizar información sobre las manifestaciones más pequeñas de la cultura popular de los países latinoamericanos: las estampillas de correo. Las disciplinas involucradas en dicho enfoque son la Semiótica (el estudio de los signos, sus relaciones y significado), la Historia, la Política (nacional e internacional) y la cultura popular. El proyecto estudia cómo estas estampillas están cargadas de mensajes significativos incluyendo expresiones de nacionalismo, propaganda política (nacional e internacional) e identidad cultural. El artículo comienza con una revisión de las estampillas latinoamericanas para luego establecer que ellas constituyen un valioso objeto de estudio bajo la rúbrica de "cultura popular". Luego de presentar un marco semiótico para el estudio de las estampillas, el autor describe ejemplos específicos de estampillas latinoamericanas enfatizando especialmente las políticas nacionales e internacionales envueltas en el diseño de las estampillas. Esta última categoría se enfoca sobre varios casos de tensión entre distintos países en las que las estampillas han jugado un rol importante.
    Malamud, Andrés.
  • Presidential Diplomacy and the Institutional Underpinnings of MERCOSUR: An Empirical Examination
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    Subject Headings:
    • Southern Cone of South America -- Economic integration.
    • Southern Cone of South America -- Politics and government.
    • MERCOSUR (Organization)
    • International economic relations.
    Abstract:
      The relative success of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) is a puzzle for most theories of regional integration. This is due to its having achieved remarkable progress in spite of lacking features such as significant levels of previous interdependence (demand factor) or major regional institutions (supply factor). To account for this puzzle, it has been claimed that the operation of MERCOSUR rests on presidential diplomacy. Such a mechanism is understood as the resort to direct negotiations between the national presidents whenever a crucial decision has to be made or a critical conflict solved. This article argues that presidential diplomacy—understood as political, summit diplomacy as opposed to institutionalized, professional diplomacy—is insufficient to account for the performance of MERCOSUR. Through the empirical analysis of three critical episodes, the article shows how institutional structures, shaped by the system of government of the member countries, have sustained presidential intervention and, hence, the process of regional integration.
    Resumen:
      O relativo sucesso do Mercado Comum do Sul (MERCOSUL) constitui um enigma para muitas teorias da integração regional. Isto resulta do facto de este ter atingido um progresso notável, não obstante a ausência de características tais como níveis significativos de interdependência prévia (factor de procura) ou instituições regionais supranacionais (factor de oferta). Um dos argumentos invocados no sentido de explicar este enigma é o de que o MERCOSUL assenta na diplomacia presidencial. Esse mecanismo é entendido como o recurso a negociações directas entre os presidentes nacionais sempre que está em causa a tomada de uma decisão crucial ou a resolução de conflitos sensíveis. Este artigo argumenta que a diplomacia presidencial—entendida como diplomacia política de cúpula, por oposição a diplomacia burocrática profissional—é insuficiente para explicar o funcionamento do MERCOSUL. Através da análise empírica de três episódios críticos, o artigo mostra como as estruturas institucionais, marcadas pelo sistema presidencialista de governo dos países membros, sustentaram a intervenção presidencial, e assim, o processo de integração regional.

Research Reports and Notes

    Shaw, Caroline S.
  • Rothschilds and Brazil: An Introduction to Sources in the Rothschild Archive
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    Subject Headings:
    • N.M. Rothschild & Sons -- Archives.
    • Rothschild Archive.
    • Brazil -- Economic conditions -- Sources.
    Abstract:
      N. M. Rothschild & Sons (NMR), the banking house which the Frankfurt-born Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836) began operating from New Court in London in 1809 and which is continued to this day by his descendants, has a long history of involvement in Brazil. Extensive documentation of this history is preserved in The Rothschild Archive in London, where material up to 1930 is available for consultation. The firm's initial business with Brazil was in merchant banking activities and bullion dealing, but in 1855 it became the Brazilian government's financial agent in London and went on to handle the government's borrowing in the London capital markets and to be closely concerned with the country's fiscal, commercial, and exchange rate policy. With the bank at the heart of the development of Brazilian public finance, The Rothschild Archive is an important resource for an understanding of this aspect of Brazilian economic and political history, as well as the history of British informal imperialism and emerging patterns of globalization.
    Resumen:
      N. M. Rothschild (NMR) é uma instituição bancária fundada em New Court, Londres no ano de 1809 pelo alemão Nathan Mayer Rothschild, natural de Frankfurt (1777-1836), e que, até hoje, continua funcionando sob a direção dos seus herdeiros. A empresa tem uma longa história de atividades no Brasil e uma extensa documentação desta história está preservada no Arquivo Rothschild em Londres, cujo acervo datado até 1930 está disponível para sua consulta. As primeiras atividades da empresa com o Brasil foram a transação bancária e o comércio de ouro e prata em barra. Entretanto, em 1855 a empresa tornou-se agente financeiro do governo brasileiro em Londres e começou a administrar os empréstimos do governo nos principais mercados de Londres e a interessar-se mais profundamente pela política do país em relação as tarifas fiscais, comerciais e de cambio. Este sistema bancário representa o coração do desenvolvimento financeiro público brasileiro, o que torna o Arquivo Rothschild um recurso fundamental para a compreensão deste aspecto econômico e político da história do Brasil bem como para a história do imperialismo britânico informal e os padrões emergentes da globalização.

Review Essays

    Hurtig, Janise.
    Montoya, Rosario, 1960-
  • Women's Political Lives in Latin America: Reconfiguring Terrains of Theory, History, and Practice
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    Subject Headings:
    • Babb, Florence E. After revolution: mapping gender and cultural politics in neoliberal Nicaragua.
    • Baldez, Lisa. Why women protest: women's movements in Chile.
    • Deere, Carmen Diana. Empowering women: land and property rights in Latin America.
    • León Leal, Magdalena.
    • Kampwirth, Karen, 1964- Women and guerrilla movements: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chiapas, Cuba.
    • Power, Margaret, 1953- Right-wing women in Chile: feminine power and the struggle against Allende 1964-1973.
    • Rodríguez Sáenz, Eugenia, ed. Siglo de luchas femeninas en América Latina.
    • Rodríguez Sáenz, Eugenia, ed. Mujeres, género e historia en América Central durante los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX.
    • Poor women -- Nicaragua -- Managua.
    • Women in politics -- Chile -- History -- 20th century.
    Booth, John A.
  • Through Revolution and Beyond: Mobilization, Demobilization, and Adjustment in Central America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jones, Adam, 1963- Beyond the barricades: Nicaragua and the struggle for the Sandinista press, 1979-1998.
    • Bayard de Volo, Lorraine, 1966- Mothers of heroes and martyrs: gender identity politics in Nicaragua, 1979-1999.
    • Luciak, Ilja A. After the Revolution: gender and democracy in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala.
    • Lundgren, Inger. Lost visions and new uncertainties: Sandinista profesionales in northern Nicaragua.
    • Barricada internacional.
    • Comité de Madres de Héroes y Mártires. Matagalpa.
    Gindling, T. H.
  • Poverty in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Social panorama of Latin America.
    • Attanasio, Orazio P., ed. Portrait of the poor: an assets-based approach.
    • Székely, Miguel, ed.
    • Birdsall, Nancy, ed. New markets, new opportunities?: economic and social mobility in a changing world.
    • Graham, Carol, 1962-, ed.
    • López, Ramón, 1948-, ed. Rural poverty in Latin America.
    • Valdés, Alberto, 1935-, ed.
    • Borda, Dionisio, ed. Pobreza, desigualdad y política social en América Latina.
    • Masi, Fernando, 1953-, ed.
    • Latin America -- Social conditions -- 1982- -- Periodicals.
    • Poor -- Latin America.
    Uzendoski, Michael A.
  • Making Amazonia: Shape-shifters, Giants, and Alternative Modernities
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    Subject Headings:
    • Overing, Joanna, ed. Anthropology of love and anger: the aesthetics of conviviality in Native Amazonia.
    • Passes, Alan, 1943-, ed.
    • Rival, Laura M., ed. Beyond the visible and the material: the Amerindianization of society in the work of Peter Rivière.
    • Whitehead, Neil L., ed.
    • Whitehead, Neil L. Dark shamans: kanaimà and the poetics of violent death.
    • Rival, Laura M. Trekking through history: the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador.
    • Hill, Jonathan David, 1954-, ed. Comparative Arawakan histories: rethinking language family and culture area in Amazonia.
    • Santos-Granero, Fernando, 1955-, ed.
    • Little, Paul E. (Paul Elliott), 1953- Amazonia: territorial struggles on perennial frontiers.
    • Slater, Candace. Entangled edens: visions of the Amazon.
    • Raffles, Hugh, 1958- In Amazonia: a natural history.
    • Indians of South America -- Amazon River Region -- Social life and customs.
    • Indians of South America -- Amazon River Region.
    Mattiace, Shannan L.
  • Representation and Rights: Recent Scholarship on Social Movements in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Eckstein, Susan, 1942-, ed. Struggles for social rights in Latin America.
    • Wickham-Crowley, Timothy P., 1951-, ed.
    • Gerlach, Allen, 1945- Indians, oil, and politics: a recent history of Ecuador.
    • Maybury-Lewis, David, ed. Politics of ethnicity: indigenous peoples in Latin American states.
    • Pallares, Amalia, 1965- From peasant struggles to Indian resistance: the Ecuadorian Andes in the late twentieth century.
    • Warren, Kay B., 1947-, ed. Indigenous movements, self-representation, and the State in Latin America.
    • Jackson, Jean E. (Jean Elizabeth), 1943-, ed.
    • Social rights -- Latin America.
    • Ecuador -- Politics and government -- 1984-
    Carey, David, 1967-
  • Shades of Peace and Democracy: Social Discontent and Reconciliation in Central America
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    Subject Headings:
    • May, Rachel A. Terror in the countryside: campesino responses to political violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985.
    • Zimmermann, Matilde, 1943- Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca and the Nicaraguan revolution.
    • Brown, Timothy C. (Timothy Charles), 1938- Real Contra War: highlander peasant resistance in Nicaragua.
    • Burgerman, Susan, 1956- Moral victories: how activists provoke multilateral action.
    • Chase-Dunn, Christopher K., ed. Globalization on the ground: postbellum Guatemalan democracy and development.
    • Jonas, Susanne, 1941-, ed.
    • Amaro, Nelson, 1940-, ed.
    • Walker, Thomas W., 1940-, ed. Repression, resistance, and democratic transition in Central America.
    • Armony, Ariel C., ed.
    • Political violence -- Guatemala.
    • Fonseca Amador, Carlos.
    Horowitz, Joel, 1949-
  • Corruption, Crime, and Punishment: Recent Scholarship on Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barros, Robert, 1957- Constitutionalism and dictatorship: Pinochet, the Junta, and the 1980 constitution.
    • Biebesheimer, Christina, ed. Justice beyond our borders: judicial reforms for Latin America and the Caribbean.
    • Mejía, Francisco, ed.
    • Buffington, Robert, 1952- Criminal and citizen in modern Mexico.
    • David, Pedro R. Globalización, prevención del delito y justicia penal.
    • Domingo, Pilar, ed. Rule of law in Latin America: the international promotion of judicial reform.
    • Sieder, Rachel, ed.
    • Rosenn, Keith S, ed. Corruption and political reform in Brazil: the impact of Collor's impeachment.
    • Downes, Richard, 1947-, ed.
    • Tulchin, Joseph S., 1939-, ed. Combatting corruption in Latin America.
    • Espach, Ralph H., ed.
    • Ungar, Mark. Elusive reform: democracy and the rule of law in Latin America.
    • Constitutional history -- Chile.
    • Justice, Administration of.

Contributors

Erratum




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