Latin American Research Review

Latin American Research Review
Volume 38, Number 2, 2003



    Yarrington, Doug, 1961-
  • Cattle, Corruption, and Venezuelan State Formation During the Regime of Juan Vicente Gómez, 1908-1935
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    Subject Headings:
    • Political corruption -- Venezuela -- History -- 1908-1935.
    • Cattle trade -- Corrupt practices -- Venezuela -- History -- 1908-1935.
    • Venezuela -- Politics and government -- 1908-1935.
    • Gómez, Juan Vicente, 1859-1935.
      This essay seeks to expand our understanding of state formation in Venezuela by examining the business enterprises established by Juan Vicente Gómez and his political allies to exploit the agrarian economy, especially the cattle trade. It argues that these enterprises were critical both in cementing the allegiance of officials to Gómez, and in establishing the regime's authority over society. Venezuelans engaged in a variety of forms of protest against officials' profiteering and occasionally won concessions from the regime, signaling that corruption constituted an issue around which the terms of state control were negotiated. Relying on Gómez's correspondence, as well as British and U.S. diplomatic records, this essay argues that business networks among members of the regime fundamentally shaped not only the internal dynamics of the state, but also its relationship to society, a topic usually neglected in studies of Venezuelan state formation.
    Legrás, Horacio.
  • El Ateneo y los orígenes del estado ético en México
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    Subject Headings:
    • Ateneo de la Juventud (Mexico)
    • Mexico -- Intellectual life -- 20th century.
    • Mexico -- History -- Revolution, 1910-1920.
    Montoya, Rosario, 1960-
  • House, Street, Collective: Revolutionary Geographies and Gender Transformation in Nicaragua, 1979-99
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    Subject Headings:
    • Agriculture, Cooperative -- Social aspects -- Nicaragua -- History -- 20th century.
    • Sex role -- Nicaragua -- History -- 20th century.
    • Women -- Nicaragua -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
    • Women -- Nicaragua -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
      This article examines gender struggles surrounding two women's collectives in a Sandinista village as a way to illuminate microprocesses of gender transformation during the Sandinista period and its aftermath. It argues for an analytical approach sensitive to the specificity of gender relations in particular contexts and the ways these were affected by state policies. It demonstrates that men's opposition to women's participation was enabled by ambiguities in Sandinista gender ideology that allowed men to interpret the meanings of revolutionary masculinity in their own terms. By examining these ambiguities, the article shows that, while the revolution failed to dismantle structures of gender inequality, as critics have pointed out, its incorporation of women as class and national subjects into the nation-building project could destabilize local patriarchies.
    Klooster, Dan.
  • Campesinos and Mexican Forest Policy During the Twentieth Century
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    Subject Headings:
    • Forest policy -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
    • Agricultural laborers -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
    • Community forestry -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
      In contrast to the rest of Latin America, where most forests belong to the state, in Mexico, village communities legally possess most of the country's remaining forests. Despite this, Mexican forest-management policies frequently empowered business interests and the state at the expense of rural communities. These policies marginalized campesinos and squandered opportunities for environmentally sound development. Nevertheless, following a fitful process of land reform, sporadic support for village communities from reformers in the agrarian reform and forestry departments, and the organized demands of villagers, Mexico now has the most advanced community forestry sector in Latin America. Today, hundreds of villages own and operate their own forest management businesses. They generate rural economic benefits while conserving forests, and they represent an important model for sustainable development in Latin America. In the 1990s, neoliberalism brought changes to agrarian and forestry law that initially benefited business interests while abandoning the forest communities best situated to integrate forest conservation and rural development. Campesino groups and their supporters, however, struggled to maintain and extend community forestry in Mexico, with some recent policy victories. Community forestry remains an important part of Mexican forest policy. Mexican forest conservation and the well-being of the campesinos who inhabit those forests depend on strengthening and extending the model, which has implications for forest policy elsewhere in Latin America.

Research Reports and Notes

    McPherson, Alan L.
  • Misled by Himself: What the Johnson Tapes Reveal About the Dominican Intervention of 1965
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    Subject Headings:
    • Dominican Republic -- History -- Revolution, 1965.
    • Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- Dominican Republic.
    • Dominican Republic -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1963-1969.
      The recent release of over four hundred telephone conversations recorded in the Lyndon Baines Johnson White House from April to December 1965 provide historians with exciting new evidence on the U.S. intervention in the Dominican Republic. The role of the president in that civil conflict has been up to now mysterious since Johnson rarely committed himself to paper. Critics and scholars since have somewhat exonerated him as simply another decision maker misled by a panicky country team spreading rumors of an imminent communist takeover. The tapes suggest, however, that Johnson was both aware that evidence of a takeover was insufficient and perhaps more concerned with domestic politics than with the situation in Santo Domingo. Repeatedly, close advisors attempted to dissuade him from overplaying an anti-communist rationale. But everywhere he looked in Washington Johnson saw enemies who would exploit any hesitation on his part. Soon after committing 23,000 troops, he admitted his lapses in judgment while he simultaneously sought scapegoats for them. The tapes place Johnson once and for all at the center of one of the most serious crises in the history of U.S.-Latin American relations and reveal the darker side of his foreign policy instincts.

Review Essays

    Swanger, Joanna B.
  • Labor in the Americas: Surviving in a World of Shifting Boundaries
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    Subject Headings:
    • Cowie, Jefferson R. Capital moves: RCA's seventy-year quest for cheap labor.
    • Whalen, Carmen Teresa, 1964- From Puerto Rico to Philadelphia: Puerto Rican workers and postwar economics.
    • Simon, Rita James, ed. Immigrant women.
    • Katz, Elizabeth G., 1964-, ed. Economics of gender in Mexico: work, family, state, and market.
    • Correia, Maria Cecilia, ed.
    • Murillo, Maria Victoria, 1967- Labor unions, partisan coalitions, and market reforms in Latin America.
    • Pérez Sáinz, Juan Pablo. From the finca to the maquila: labor and capitalist development in Central America.
    • Massey, Douglas S. Beyond smoke and mirrors: Mexican immigration in an era of economic integration.
    • Durand, Jorge.
    • Malone, Nolan J.
    • Nevins, Joseph. Operation Gatekeeper: the rise of the "illegal alien" and the making of the U.S.-Mexico boundary.
    • RCA Corporation -- History.
    • Puerto Ricans -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
    Randall, Stephen J., 1944-
  • The Tragedy of American Diplomacy Revisited: U.S. Relations with Latin America and the Caribbean
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    Subject Headings:
    • Gilderhus, Mark T. Second century: United States--Latin American relations since 1889.
    • Leonard, Thomas M., 1937-, ed. United States-Latin American relations, 1850-1903: establishing a relationship.
    • Schoonover, Thomas David, 1936- French in Central America: culture and commerce, 1820-1930.
    • Mitchell, Nancy, 1952- Danger of dreams: German and American imperialism in Latin America.
    • Bouvier, Virginia Marie, 1958-, ed. Whose America?: the war of 1898 and the battles to define the nation.
    • Streeter, Stephen M. Managing the counterrevolution: the United States and Guatemala, 1954-1961.
    • Dent, David W. Legacy of the Monroe doctrine: a reference guide to U.S. involvement in Latin America and the Caribbean.
    • Jayne, Catherine E., 1964- Oil, war, and Anglo-American relations: American and British reactions to Mexico's expropriation of foreign oil properties, 1937-1941.
    • Cullather, Nick, 1959- Secret history: the CIA's classified account of its operations in Guatemala, 1952-1954.
    • Binns, Jack R., 1933- United States in Honduras, 1980-1981: an ambassador's memoir.
    • McBeth, B. S. (Brian Stuart), 1951- Gunboats, corruption, and claims: foreign intervention in Venezuela, 1899-1908.
    • Chester, Eric Thomas. Rag-tags, scum, riff-raff, and commies: the U.S. intervention in the Dominican Republic, 1965-66.
    • Hall, Michael R., 1960- Sugar and power in the Dominican Republic: Eisenhower, Kennedy and the Trujillos.
    • Latin America -- Foreign relations -- United States.
    • Central America -- Relations -- France.
    Rakowski, Cathy A.
  • Women as Political Actors: The Move from Maternalism to Citizenship Rights and Power
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    Subject Headings:
    • Craske, Nikki, ed. Gender and the politics of rights and democracy in Latin America.
    • Molyneux, Maxine, ed.
    • Gonzáalez, Victoria, 1969-, ed. Radical women in Latin America: left and right.
    • Kampwirth, Karen, 1964-, ed.
    • Friedman, Elisabeth J., 1966- Unfinished transitions: women and the gendered development of democracy in Venezuela, 1936-1996.
    • Craske, Nikki. Women and politics in Latin America.
    • Townsend, Janet G., 1944- Women and power: fighting patriarchies and poverty.
    • Molyneux, Maxine. Women's movements in international perspective: Latin America and beyond.
    • Women's rights -- Latin America -- Congresses.
    • Women radicals -- Latin America.
    Camp, Roderic Ai.
  • Performing on the Mexican Democratic Stage: New Actors, New Scripts
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    Subject Headings:
    • Babb, Sarah L. Managing Mexico: economists from nationalism to neoliberalism.
    • Levy, Daniel C. Mexico: the struggle for democratic development.
    • Bruhn, Kathleen, 1963-
    • Zebadúa, Emilio.
    • Mazarr, Michael J., 1965- Mexico 2005: the challenges of the new millenium.
    • Middlebrook, Kevin J., ed. Party politics and the struggle for democracy in Mexico: national and state-level analyses of the Partido Acción Nacional.
    • Stephen, Lynn. Zapata lives!: histories and cultural politics in southern Mexico.
    • Williams, Heather L. Social movements and economic transition: markets and distributive conflict in Mexico.
    • Mexico -- Economic policy.
    • Democracy -- Mexico.
    DeSipio, Louis.
  • Cuban Miami: Seeking Identity in a Political Borderland
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bettinger-López, Caroline. Cuban-Jewish journeys: searching for identity, home, and history in Miami.
    • Calvo Ospina, Hernando, 1961- Cuban exile movement: dissidents or mercenaries?
    • Declercq, Katlijn, 1952-
    • García, María Cristina, 1960- Cuban Miami in Havana USA: Cuban exiles and Cuban Americans in south Florida, 1959-1994.
    • Levine, Robert M. Cuban Miami.
    • Asís, Moisés, 1952-
    • Levine, Robert M. Secret missions to Cuba: Fidel Castro, Bernardo Benes, and Cuban Miami.
    • Torres, María de los Angeles. In the land of mirrors: Cuban exile politics in the United States.
    • Triay, Victor Andres, 1966- Bay of Pigs: an oral history of Brigade 2506.
    • Jews -- Florida -- Miami -- History -- 20th century.
    • United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
    Van Cott, Donna Lee.
  • Indigenous Struggle
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    Subject Headings:
    • Hoekema, A. J., ed. Challenge of diversity: indigenous peoples and reform of the State in Latin America.
    • Haar, Gemma van der, 1968-, ed.
    • Assies, Willem, ed.
    • Brysk, Alison, 1960- From tribal village to global village: Indian rights and international relations in Latin America.
    • Cadena, Marisol de la. Indigenous Mestizos: the politics of race and culture in Cuzco, Peru, 1919-1991.
    • Garfield, Seth, 1967- Indigenous struggle at the heart of Brazil: state policy, frontier expansion, and the Xavante Indians, 1937-1988.
    • Selverston-Scher, Melina. Ethnopolitics in Ecuador: indigenous rights and the strengthening of democracy.
    • Stonich, Susan C., ed. Endangered peoples of Latin America: struggles to survive and thrive.
    • Ticona Alejo, Esteban. Organización y liderazgo aymara, 1979-1996.
    • Indians -- Government relations.
    • Indians -- Civil rights.
    Scarpaci, Joseph L.
  • Architecture, Design, and Planning: Recent Scholarship on Modernity and Public Spaces in Latin America
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    Subject Headings:
    • Segre, Roberto, 1934- América Latina fin de milenio: raíces y perspectivas de su arquitectura.
    • Perry, Richard (Richard D.) Blue lakes and silver cities: the colonial arts and architecture of West Mexico.
    • Fraser, Valerie. Building the new world: studies in the modern architecture of Latin America, 1930-1960.
    • Herzog, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur) From Aztec to high tech: architecture and landscape across the Mexico-United States border.
    • Quantrill, Malcolm, 1931-, ed. Latin American architecture: six voices.
    • Low, Setha M. On the plaza: the politics of public space and culture.
    • Loomis, John A., 1951- Revolution of forms: Cuba's forgotten art schools.
    • FLASCO (Organization). Sede Académica de México. Perfiles latinoamericanos.
    • Rodríguez, Eduardo Luis, 1959- Havana guide: modern architecture, 1925-1965.
    • Schelling, Vivian, 1952-, ed. Through the kaleidoscope: the experience of modernity in Latin America.
    • Architecture -- Latin America.
    • Architecture, Spanish colonial -- Mexico.

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