We are unable to display your institutional affiliation without JavaScript turned on.
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE
OR

Download PDF

Review Article on Langacker 2009:
Online Supplement
Jeffrey Heath
University of Michigan

Appendix

A beginner’s guide to CG notation

In the body of the published review (Investigations in cognitive grammar, by Ronald W. Langacker, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2009), I highlighted many of the key terms in CG. Those reading L’s works for the first time need to master that vocabulary, but also the major abbreviations and symbols that occur in Langacker’s diagrams. He does not provide a convenient list of them, either in the book under review or in the 2008 textbook, so I provide one here.

Frequent abbreviations:

c

composition (of two components into a composite assemblage)

C

conceptualizer

CDS

current discourse space

D

dominion (mental space associated with an entity)

DI

domain of instantiation (for a token of a type)

e

epistemic stance (of a conceptualizer)

E

a. event (as in E1 > E2 > E3 event sequence)

b. expression

Et

maximal extension (of a mass)

G

ground (e.g. determiner of a nominal, tense/mood of a clause)

H

hearer

i

integration (of two components, prerequisite to their constituting a composite assemblage)

IS

immediate scope (currently onstage portion of a maximal scope)

L

language

lm

landmark (secondary focus, cf. trajector)

MS

maximal scope (cf. immediate scope)

N

noun

NML

nominal (i.e. NP/DP)

OC

objective content

p

process (becomes a proposition when grounding is added)

P

a. proposition (includes grounding, cf. p)

b. phonological pole (cf. semantic pole)

R

a. reality conception

b. reference point (cf. target)

RC~Rc

conceived reality, reality conception

s

symbolization (connection between semantic and phonological poles)

S

a. speaker

b. semantic structure or pole (cf. phonological pole)

Sch

schema [End Page s1]

t

a. conceived time (with an arrow, e.g. time span of a narrated event)

b. type (versus token)

T

a. target (cf. reference point)

b. processing time (e.g. during speech)

tr

trajector (primary focus, cf. landmark)

U

usage event

VP

vantage point

w

word

W

world

Σ

symbolic structure (pairing of semantic and phonological poles)

Shapes and fill patterns that occur in L’s diagrams:

  • A1:    Geometrical shape

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    rectangular (or square) box: an entity (thing, relationship, etc.)

    rectangular box with rounded corners: a novel entity

    circle: a thing

    ellipse: an abstraction (e.g. a dominion), a mass, an amorphous thing

  • A2:    Style and weight of the outline of a shape

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    regular line: default

    dashed line: an inaccessible or unproductive entity

    heavy (bold) line: focal (profiled); prototypical

  • A3:    Fill pattern of a shape

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    no fill: default

    shaded (gray fill): active zone; substance (of a mass, excluding its shape)

    diagonally hatched: elaboration site

  • B1:    Single line (excluding arrows) connecting two entities

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    regular line: cooccurrence (in a scene); modification

    dotted line: correspondence (including ‘weak identification’)

    heavy (bold) line: like a regular line, but profiled (focal)

  • B2:    Double line (excluding arrows) connecting two entities

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    double solid line (based on equals sign =): referential identity (as in X is Y)

    double dotted line: strong identification [End Page s2]

  • B3:    Single-headed, single-line arrow

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    solid vertical arrow connecting two entities: profile determinant (head)

    dashed vertical arrow connecting two entities: not profile determinant

    solid vertical arrow, free: measurement scale

    solid horizontal arrow connecting two entities: elaboration (filling a schematic variable); grounding

    dashed horizontal arrow connecting two entities: extension (nontransparent elaboration); quotative (‘that’) complement

    solid horizontal arrow emanating from one entity: motion, transfer, being impacted

    solid horizontal arrow along bottom, labeled ‘t’ or ‘T’: passage of time

    squiggly line: random selection (‘any X’)

  • B4: Double-lined arrow

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    solid double arrow: exertion of force

    dashed double arrow: latent force, deontic modal, epistemic striving

  • B5: Double-headed arrow

    INSERT DESCRIPTION - inline graphic

    temporal sequence (before/after); cognitive alternation (disjunction) [End Page s3]