One of the central issues in morphology/morphosyntax has been the locus of the mechanisms
responsible for word formation. LEXICALISM claims that the mechanisms employed forwor d
formation are distinct from those found in other domains (e.g. syntax). I examine in this article
so-called 'lexical' V-V compound formation in Japanese from a lexicalist point of view and show
that it is indeed LEXICAL (some claim that it is syntactic). Though Japanese V-V compounds have
been studied extensively, a principled and unified account has not been proposed due to their
complexities, especially one that deals with the question of how arguments of component verbs
are to be synthesized into a single argument structure. The current proposal embodies the notion
of THEMATIC PROTO-ROLE and devises semantically driven argument matching giving rise to an
argument structure of a V-V compound as a whole. In such a process, syntactic apparatuses or
grammatical relations per se play no central role.
Animacy Versus Weight as Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
English language -- Grammar.
English language -- Noun phrase.
English language -- Word order.
This article investigates whether certain animacy effects are an artifact of syntactic weight
(because statistically, animate referents tend to be short) or whether animacy is an independent
variable in grammatical variation. The empirical domain of investigation is a case of grammatical
variation in the noun phrase, specifically, English genitive variation. Data from a corpus study
as well as the results of an experimental study are brought forward, showing that animacy and
weight are independent factors. These data are further supported by typological evidence. Moreover,
the analysis of the interaction of animacy and weight provides evidence that animacy can
even dominate weight up to a certain cut-off point. Finally, it is argued that animacy is a processing
factor influencing grammatical variation, just as weight is.
This article focuses on the grammatical properties of a Madurese structure in which an argument
of a complement clause appears to occur in a nonthematic position in its dominating clause.
RAISING-TO-OBJECT (or its analogue in nonderivational theories) has been proposed over the past
thirty years or so for the corresponding construction in the closely related Austronesian languages
of Balinese, Indonesian/Malay, and Javanese. Close examination of the Madurese data reveals
that a proleptic NP analysis, in which the matrix NP is generated in the matrix clause, proves
superior to the raising analysis and shares virtually all of the same properties as the parallel English
construction (I believe about Marlena that she left for Jakarta on Wednesday). Enumeration of
these properties and comparison with both RAISING and COPY RAISING provide the initial step in
identifying the hallmarks of each construction and how they might differ typologically.
Baayen, R. Harald.
Prado Martín, Fermín Moscoso del, 1974-
It is widely believed that the difference between regular and irregular verbs is restricted to
form. This study questions that belief. We report a series of lexical statistics showing that irregular
verbs cluster in denser regions in semantic space. Compared to regular verbs, irregular verbs tend
to have more semantic neighbors that in turn have relatively many other semantic neighbors that
are morphologically irregular. We show that this greater semantic density for irregulars is reflected
in association norms, familiarity ratings, visual lexical-decision latencies, and word-naming latencies.
Meta-analyses of the materials of two neuroimaging studies show that in these studies,
regularity is confounded with differences in semantic density. Our results challenge the hypothesis
of the supposed formal encapsulation of rules of inflection and support lines of research in which
sensitivity to probability is recognized as intrinsic to human language.