Language

Language
Volume 81, Number 1, March 2005

CONTENTS

    Haspelmath, Martin, 1963-
    Kaye, Alan S.
    Forster, Peter G. (Peter Glover), 1944-
    Eska, Joseph F.
    Ringe, Donald A., 1954-
    Epstein, Samuel David.
    Hornstein, Norbert.
    Ariel, Mira.
  • Letters to Language
    [Access article in PDF]
    Joseph, Brian D.
  • The Editor's Department: Thoughts on Transitions: From Diachrony to Dicladia
    [Access article in PDF]
    Cowper, Elizabeth A.
  • The Geometry of Interpretable Features: Infl in English and Spanish
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    Subject Headings:
    • English language -- Tense.
    • Spanish language -- Tense.
    Abstract:
      This article proposes a feature-geometric analysis of the interpretable features of Infl, using MINIMALIST syntax and DISTRIBUTED MORPHOLOGY. A small universal set of monovalent interpretable features and a set of entailment relations among them provide the basis for a principled account of the tense systems of English and Spanish. While each feature, each lexical item, and each vocabulary item has a unified representation, surface polysemy is shown to arise from the mappings between them. Crosslinguistic variation is shown to arise from the different features chosen by each language and from the ways in which each language assembles its features into lexical items and vocabulary items. In addition, the presence or absence of a dependent feature F in a given language is shown to have important consequences for the semantic interpretation of the feature dominating F. These three possible differences interact to produce the significant superficial differences between the tense systems of the two languages.
    Crowhurst, Megan Jane.
    Michael, Lev D.
  • Iterative Footing and Prominence-Driven Stress in Nanti (Kampa)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Nanti language -- Accents and accentuation.
    Abstract:
      In this article we describe and develop an optimality-theoretic (OT) analysis of foot-level (secondary) and word-level (primary) stress in Nanti, a Kampa language of Peru. The distribution of stress in Nanti is sensitive to rhythmic factors, syllable quantity, vowel quality, and to whether a syllable is open or closed. The interaction of these independent variables produces a complex, multigrade stress scale married to an iterative stress system whose default preference is alternating, iambic rhythm. While each of the interacting factors in this system is familiar to phonologists, Nanti is special because the particular combination of influences and factors in Nanti contributes to a complexity of interactions that has not been documented in any other language to date.
    Farrell, Patrick, 1953-
  • English Verb-Preposition Constructions: Constituency and Order
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    Subject Headings:
    • English language -- Verb.
    • English language -- Prepositions.
    Abstract:
      This article offers a comprehensive analysis of the constituent-structure and linear-order properties of English transitive and intransitive V-P constructions involving so-called 'particles' (turn on the lights/the lights on, mess up the song/the song up, shut up, sit down, etc.). Drawing on both standard and certain new evidence and arguments, it is proposed that V-P constructions generally come in one or both of two varieties: lexical compounds (mess up in mess up the song) and/or discontinuous verbs, that is, lexemes with more than one piece projected as a word or phrase (mess . . . up in mess the song up), and that the alternation, for those that have both manifestations, reflects different argument structure possibilities for a lexeme with the same overall conceptual semantics. The internal structure of VPs built on V-P lexemes is examined in some detail. The popular 'small-clause' approach, according to which the DP of transitive V-P structures is the subject of a phrase that has the P as its predicate, is shown to be problematic, primarily because there in fact exists a true small-clause construction that can have a P as its predicate and the putative small clause of cases like mess the song up systematically lacks the defining properties of this construction. The word-order restrictions that the small-clause approach is designed, in part, to account for are shown to follow from a set of independently needed linearization constraints, which are motivated by functional principles.
    Baker, Mark C.
    Aranovich, Roberto.
    Golluscio, Lucía.
  • Two Types of Syntactic Noun Incorporation: Noun Incorporation in Mapudungun and its Typological Implications
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mapuche language -- Noun.
    • Mapuche language -- Syntax.
    Abstract:
      NOUN INCORPORATION (NI) in Mapudungun is different from NI in better-studied languages like Mohawk in three ways: the incorporated noun is invisible to verbal agreement, incorporation into unaccusative verbs is impossible unless a possessor is stranded, and possessors are the only modifiers that can be stranded. These differences can be explained by saying that the trace of NI retains its person, number, and gender features in Mohawk but not in Mapudungun. Those aspects of grammar that do not involve these features treat NI in the two languages the same; thus, NI has the same gross distribution and anaphoric possibilities in both languages. We extend these results to Nahuatl, Chukchee, Ainu, Southern Tiwa, Mayali, and Wichita, showing that our theory accounts for Mithun's (1984) distinction between Type III and Type IV noun incorporation in a general way.
    Foulkes, Paul.
    Docherty, Gerard J.
    Watt, Dominic.
  • Phonological Variation in Child-Directed Speech
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mothers -- England -- Tyneside -- Language.
    • English language -- England -- Tyneside -- Phonology.
    • English language -- England -- Tyneside -- Phonetics.
    • English language -- England -- Tyneside -- Acquisition.
    Abstract:
      Segmental features of child-directed speech (CDS) were studied in a corpus drawn from thirtynine mothers living in Tyneside, England. Focus was on the phonetic variants used for (t) in word-medial and word-final prevocalic contexts since it is known that these variants display clear sociolinguistic patterning in the adult community. Variant usage in CDS was found to differ markedly from that in interadult speech. Effects were also found with respect to the age and gender of the children being addressed. Speech to girls generally contained more standard variants than speech to boys, which, by contrast, contained higher rates of vernacular variants. The differentiation by gender was most apparent for the youngest children. The findings are assessed in comparison to other studies of CDS. It has previously been claimed that modifications made in the CDS register help children to learn linguistic structures and also to learn that speech is a social activity. Our findings suggest that CDS may play an additional role, providing boys and girls as young as 2;0 with differential opportunities to learn the social-indexical values of sociolinguistic variables.

Discussion Notes

    Clark, Brady.
  • On Stochastic Grammar
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Newmeyer, Frederick J. Grammar is grammar and usage is usage.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general.
    Laury, Ritva.
    Ono, Tsuyoshi, 1931-
  • Data is Data and Model is Model: You Don’t Discard the Data that Doesn’t Fit Your Model!
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    Subject Headings:
    • Newmeyer, Frederick J. Grammar is grammar and usage is usage.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general.
    Meyer, Charles F.
    Tao, Hongyin.
  • Response to Newmeyer’s ‘Grammar is Grammar and Usage is Usage’
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    Subject Headings:
    • Newmeyer, Frederick J. Grammar is grammar and usage is usage.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general.
    Newmeyer, Frederick J.
  • A Reply to the Critiques of ‘Grammar is Grammar and Usage is Usage’
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    Subject Headings:
    • Clark, Brady. On stochastic grammar.
    • Laury, Ritva. Data is data and model is model: you don’t discard the data that doesn’t fit your model!
    • Ono, Tsuyoshi, 1931-
    • Meyer, Charles F. Response to Newmeyer’s ‘Grammar is grammar and usage is usage’.
    • Tao, Hongyin.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general.

Obituary

Reviews

    Maslova, Elena.
  • Bio-linguistics: The Santa Barbara Lectures (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Givón, Talmy, 1936- Bio-linguistics: the Santa Barbara lectures.
    • Biolinguistics.
    Grohmann, Kleanthes K.
  • Prolegomenon to a Theory of Argument Structure (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Hale, Kenneth L. (Kenneth Locke), 1934- Prolegomenon to a theory of argument structure.
    • Keyser, Samuel Jay, 1935-
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Verb phrase.
    Sproat, Richard William.
  • The Writing on the Wall: How Asian Orthography Curbs Creativity (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Hannas, Wm. C., 1946- Writing on the wall: how Asian orthography curbs creativity.
    • East Asia -- Languages -- Writing.
    Beck, David, 1963-
  • Understanding Morphology (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Haspelmath, Martin, 1963- Understanding morphology.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Morphology.
    Boeckx, Cedric.
  • Minimalist Syntax (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Hendrick, Randall, ed. Minimalist syntax.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Syntax.
    Lasnik, Howard.
  • The Syntax of Silence (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Merchant, Jason. Syntax of silence.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Ellipsis.
    Mühlhäusler, Peter.
  • The Ecology of Language Evolution (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Mufwene, Salikoko S. Ecology of language evolution.
    • Historical linguistics.
    Bailey, Richard W.
  • Talking Proper: The Rise of Accent as Social Symbol (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Mugglestone, Lynda. Talking proper: the rise of accent as social symbol.
    • English language -- Great Britain -- Standardization.
    Muysken, Pieter.
  • One Mind, Two Languages: Bilingual Language Processing (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Nicol, Janet, ed. One mind, two languages: bilingual language processing.
    • Bilingualism -- Psychological aspects.
    Dressler, Wolfgang U., 1939-
    Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Katarzyna, 1960-
  • Sound Patterns of Spoken English (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Shockey, Linda. Sound patterns of spoken English.
    • English language -- Phonology.
    Parkinson, Dilworth B., 1951-
  • The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Suleiman, Yasir. Arabic language and national identity: a study in ideology.
    • Arab nationalism.

Book Notices

    Ntelitheos, Dimitrios.
  • The Celtic Languages (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Ball, Martin J. (Martin John), ed. Celtic languages.
    • Fife, James, ed.
    • Celtic languages.
    Callies, Marcus.
  • Acquisition in Interlanguage Pragmatics: Learning How To Do Things With Words in a Study Abroad Context (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Barron, Anne. Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics: learning how to do things with words in a study abroad context.
    • Second language acquisition.
    Luís, Ana R.
  • Clitic Phenomena in European Languages (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Beukema, F. H. (Frits H.), ed. Clitic phenomena in European languages.
    • Dikken, Marcel den, 1965-, ed.
    • Europe -- Languages -- Clitics -- Congresses.
    Salzmann, Zdenek.
  • The Origins of Language: What Nonhuman Primates Can Tell Us (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • King, Barbara J., 1956-, ed. Origins of language: what nonhuman primates can tell us.
    • Language and languages -- Origin.
    Luís, Ana R.
  • A Lexical Approach to Italian Cliticization (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Monachesi, Paola. Lexical approach to Italian cliticization.
    • Italian language -- Clitics.
    Elson, Mark J.
  • English in the Southern United States (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Nagle, Stephen J., 1948-, ed. English in the southern United States.
    • Sanders, Sara L., ed.
    • English language -- Southern States.
    Chung, Karen Steffen.
  • A Dictionary of Plautdietsch Rhyming Words (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Neufeld, Eldo. Dictionary of Plautdietsch rhyming words.
    • Low German language.
    Farquharson, Joseph T.
  • A History of the Spanish Language (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Penny, Ralph J. (Ralph John), 1940- History of the Spanish language.
    • Spanish language -- Grammar, Historical.
    Ankerstein, Carrie.
  • The Neuroscience of Language: On Brain Circuits of Words and Serial Order (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Pulvermüller, Friedemann. Neuroscience of language: on brain circuits of words and serial order.
    • Neurolinguistics.
    Lenz, Catherine A.
  • African American Literacies (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Richardson, Elaine B., 1960- African American literacies.
    • English language -- Study and teaching -- African American students.
    Ntelitheos, Dimitrios.
  • The Noun Phrase (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Rijkhoff, Jan. Noun phrase.
    • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Noun phrase.
    Bergs, Alexander.
  • Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Rohdenburg, Günther, 1940-, ed. Determinants of grammatical variation in English.
    • Mondorf, Britta, 1963-, ed.
    • English language -- Grammar.
    Yus, Francisco.
  • The Language of Comics (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Saraceni, Mario, 1969- Language of comics.
    • Comic books, strips, etc. -- History and criticism.
    Grohmann, Kleanthes K.
  • The Acquisition of Direct Object Scrambling and Clitic Placement: Syntax and Pragmatics (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Schaeffer, Jeannette C. Acquisition of direct object scrambling and clitic placement: syntax and pragmatics.
    • Language acquisition.
    Chen, Liang.
  • The Peirce Seminar Papers: Essays in Semiotic Analysis, vol. 5 (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Shapiro, Michael, 1939-, ed. Peirce Seminar papers.
    • Peirce, Charles S. (Charles Sanders), 1839-1914 -- Congresses.
    Kaye, Alan S.
  • Language Processing and Acquisition in Languages of Semitic, Root-Based, Morphology (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Shimron, Joseph, ed. Language processing and acquisition in languages of Semitic, root-based, morphology.
    • Semitic languages -- Morphology.
    McCready, Eric.
  • Presupposition and Discourse Functions of the Japanese Particle mo (review)
    [Access article in PDF]
    Subject Headings:
    • Shudo, Sachiko. Presupposition and discourse functions of the Japanese particle mo.
    • Japanese language -- Particles.

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